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Published Date

October 1996

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Accident Prevention (IP no.4) The Use of Hoses and Hard-Arms at Marine Terminals Handling Liquefied Gas, 2nd Edition

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This book is aimed at terminal operators but some of the information is also relevant to ship operators. It covers accidents and near misses that have occurred at the ship/shore interface, either involving hoses or hard-arms, and primarily covers the LNG, LPG and chemical gas trades (small scale barge operations are briefly mentioned). Apart from the issues that relate directly to hoses and hard-arms, the study also includes ship/shore mooring security and spill limitation devices.

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As well as accident data from earlier reports, the book also includes newer information and feedback which the SIGTTO membership provided to cover current experiences. The aim of the book is to include the most well-known events in one publication.


Terminal managers will benefit from following the guidance given in this publication regarding terminal audits and the appropriate auditing standards. The programme for auditing marine terminal operations is recommended by SIGTTO.


This book covers accidents that relate to hoses, hard-arms and pipelines that are close to either the ship or shore manifolds and is only relevant to the liquefied gas industry. Due to some of the information being limited, it is not always possible to make firm conclusions or to identify positively the cause of the accident. In these situations assumptions are made and the most likely solutions are suggested.


The publication covers several central factors, i.e. good quality of mooring systems, emergency shut-down systems and emergency release couplers. The aim is to use a combination of these to achieve a ship/shore system that reduces the possibility of a serious spillage.


This book includes information that was provided by independent sources, it was then reviewed by the SIGTTO membership. This process produced a book that reviews accidents at gas jetties and provides information for safer handling practices.

1 Introduction

1.1 Preamble

1.2 Scope

2 Accident Summary

2.1 Findings

2.2 Suggested Procedures

3 The Hazards

4 Safe Berths, Mooring Systems & Operating Procedures

4.1 Ship Manoeuvres in Harbour Areas

4.2 Moorings and Ship Size Limits

4.3 Operations and Operational Procedures

5 Cargo Hose

5.1 Hose Specification

5.2 Hose Handling and Operation

5.3 Hose Inspection, Testing and Maintenance

5.4 Ship’s Hoses

5.5 Ship-to-Ship Transfer Operations

6 Hard-Arms (Loading Arms)

6.1 Hydraulic Analysis and Surge Pressures

6.2 Hard-Arm Specification

6.3 Hard-Arm Handling and Operation

6.4 Hard-Arm Maintenance

7 Emergency Shut-Down/Release

7.1 Small Terminals

7.2 Larger Terminals

7.3 Refrigerated Terminals

8 Pipelines

8.1 Surge Pressures

8.2 Pipeline Design and Maintenance

9 Analysis of Incidents

9.1 The Data-Base of Incidents

9.2 Frequency of Accidents or Near-miss Data

10 References


A-1 Known Accidents and Near-miss Data

A-2 Terminology and Descriptive Definitions

A-3 Recommendations for Terminals-Ship Break-out


The purpose of SIGTTO is to promote shipping and terminal operations for liquefied gases which are safe, environmentally responsible and reliable. To fulfil this mission it will:

  • Proactively develop best operating practices and guideline

  • Sustain a learning environment by sharing lessons learned

  • Promote training and development of all within the industry

  • Foster mutually beneficial relationships with regulatory authorities and other stakeholders

  • Conduct its business with professionalism and integrity

Title: Accident Prevention (IP no.4) The Use of Hoses and Hard-Arms at Marine Terminals Handling Liquefied Gas, 2nd Edition
Edition: Second
Number of Pages: 60
Product Code: 4400W001
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-114-5 (9781856091145), ISBN 10: 1-85609-114-7 (1856091147)
Published Date: October 1996
Binding Format: Paperback
Book Height: 300 mm
Book Width: 210 mm
Weight: 0.20 kg
Author: SIGTTO

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