An Introduction to Bunkering, 2nd Edition

Published Date

October 2012


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An Introduction to Bunkering, 2nd Edition

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This clearly written, illustrated book will help anyone in the maritime industry to understand exactly what bunkering is all about. It covers every aspect of bunkering, from its history and early development right through to bunker regulations, legislation, terminology and standards. The extensive index and appendices allows the reader to quickly find explanations to technical words or phrases.

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Written by Nigel Draffin, acknowledged bunker industry expert and past Chairman of the International Bunker Industry Association, this book is a highly respected and invaluable introduction to the bunker industry. It provides clear answers to complicated questions and its useful, up-to-date data and illustrations will help anyone in the maritime industry to understand exactly what bunkering is all about. It is just as relevant to vessel charterers, ship operators, marine lawyers and port agents as it is to buyers and sellers of marine fuel.

Dedication

Foreword

Preface

About the author

Acknowledgements

 

Chapter 1 - What are Bunkers?

Types of fuel

Residual fuel

Distillate fuel

Daily consumption

The size of the bunker market

 

Chapter 2 - Who buys and who sells?

Buyers

Sellers

Brokers

 

Chapter 3 - Who else takes part?

Port authorities

Customs

Delivery companies

Agents

Shipping jargon

Ship types

 

Chapter 4 - Prices

Bunker price reports

Hedging

Posted prices

 

Chapter 5 - How to buy, how to sell

What to buy?

Where to buy?

Bunker ports

Port restrictions

Offshore deliveries

How much to buy?

Vessel restrictions

When to buy?

Enquiry

Offer

Model offers

Delivery charges

Negotiation

Fixture

Confirmation

Post fixture

Invoicing

Payment

 

Chapter 6 - Terms and Conditions

Principal clauses

 

Chapter 7 - Bunker properties

Units

Manufacture

Elements

Contaminants

Adulterants

Properties for which we test

Density

Viscosity

Water

Ash

Carbon Residue

Sulphur

Aluminium

Silicon

Vanadium

Total Sediment Potential (TSP)

Sodium

Calcium, zinc and phosphorous

Iron

Nickel

Asphaltenes

Pour point

Flash point

Hydrogen sulphide

Stability

Acid number

Lubricity

Oxidisation stability

Compatibility

Ease of ignition

Microbial contamination

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Screening

Safety issues

Fire and explosion

Health

Material Safety Data Sheets

Pollution

 

Chapter 8 - Bunker specifications

Origins

Current standards

ISO 8217

CIMAC 2003

 

Chapter 9 - How are bunkers delivered?

Barge

Dumb barges

Self-propelled barges

Coastal tankers

Pipeline

Road tanker

Rail tanker

Drum

Booming

Delivery procedures

Access

Communications

Sampling

 

Chapter 10 - How are bunkers measured?

Measurement details

 

Chapter 11 - How are bunkers used?

Diesel engine

Slow speed diesel

Medium speed diesel

High speed diesel

Boilers

Steam turbine

Gas turbine

Fuel storage

Fuel treatment

Settling

Centrifuging

Heaters

Filtration

Injection viscosity

 

Chapter 12 - What can go wrong?

Quantity dispute

Delay to shipping

Delay to barge

Quality dispute

Debunkering

 

Chapter 13 - How to avoid and deal with problems

Dispute communications

Notice of claim

Exchange of information

Referee analysis

Surveyors

Evidence

Advice

Resolution

 

Appendix I - International Organisations, Legislation and Regulation

Flag State and Port State

International Maritime Organization

Proposed changes to sulphur limits

The European Union

United States

Others

 

Appendix II - Where else to go for help

Non-governmental organisations

Technical and legal information

General bunkering

Useful websites

 

Appendix III – Abbreviations

 

Index

Petrospot is a dynamic independent publishing, training and events organisation focused on the maritime, energy and transportation industries.

It delivers the highest quality strategic information in the most comprehensive and convenient formats – via magazines, websites and books, or face to face in conferences, exhibitions, seminars and training courses.

Based in Oxfordshire, England, Petrospot was established in May 2003 by Llewellyn Bankes-Hughes (Managing Director). He is supported by Lesley Bankes-Hughes (Director – Publishing), and Luci Llewellyn-Jones (Director – Events).

Title: An Introduction to Bunkering, 2nd Edition
Edition: Second
Number of Pages: 109
Product Code: PT1013K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-0-9548097-1-3 (9780954809713), ISBN 10: 0-9548097-1-8 (0954809718)
Published Date: October 2012
Weight: 0.50 kg

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