An Introduction to Fuel Analysis

Published Date

May 2009


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An Introduction to Fuel Analysis

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This book discusses bunker fuels and what they contain, fuel specifications, fuel testing, interpretation of test results, and how to proceed when problem results appear. In addition, the appendices provide places to go for help, lists of abbreviations and a multi-lingual glossary of the terms most commonly found in fuel test analysis reports.

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Although never a substitute for the huge amount of detail that can be obtained from a professional analyst using a fully-equipped modern laboratory, this book certainly provides a substantial amount of information that will benefit anyone involved in any way with marine fuels.

The text is illustrated with numerous detailed diagrams, tables, charts and photographs.

Foreword

Preface

About the author

Acknowledgements

List of tables and figures

 

Chapter 1 - Fuel analysis

Selecting and verifying quality

Units

Standard prefixes for the SI units of measure

Examples

Other abbreviations

 

Chapter 2 - Fuel specifications

Current standards

ISO 8217

CIMAC 2003

ASTM

JIS

NATO

Buyer’s specifications

Legislation requirements on specifications

IMO requirements

 

Chapter 3 - Parameters

Density

Viscosity

Carbon residue

Sediment

Compatibility

Ash

Pour point

Flash point

Cloud point

Cold filter plugging point

Cetane Index

Acid Number

Asphaltenes

Hydrogen Sulphide

Vanadium

Sodium

Water

Sulphur

Aluminium

Silicon

Iron

Nickel

Calcium

Magnesium

Lead

Zinc

Phosphorus

Potassium

 

Chapter 4 - Other reported items

CCAI / CII

FIA

Specific energy

Visual appearance

Injection temperatures

Copper strip corrosion

Distillation range

Microbiological contamination

Organic contaminants

 

Chapter 5 - Taking representative samples

Equipment

Methods

Spot sample

Composite sample

Drip sample

Flow proportional sample

Transportation

Receiving the results

Documentation

Breaking the seal

 

Chapter 6 - Test methods

Density (p)

Specific gravity (SG)

Viscosity (v)

Copper strip corrosion

Distillation range

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)

Water (H2O)

Carbon residue / Carbon residue 10%

Asphaltenes

Sulphur (S)

Total Sediment Existent / Total Sediment Potential / Total Sediment Accelerated

Compatibility

Ash

Tests for metals

ICP Spectrometer

Aluminium plus Silicon (Al + Si)

Vanadium (V)

Sodium (Na)

Iron (Fe)

Nickel (Ni)

Calcium (Ca)

Zinc (Zn)

Phosphorus (P)

Magnesium (Mg)

Lead (Pb)

Potassium (K)

Pour point

Flash point

Cloud point

Cetane Index

Acid Number

Microbiological contamination

Organic contaminants

Equivalent tests

Test method date identifier

Sample volume and time for result

 

Chapter 7 - Interpretation of results

ISO 4259

True value

95% confidence level

95% confidence buyer’s formula example

95% confidence seller’s formula example

European Union procedure for control on Sulphur

MARPOL procedure

Fuel Oil Verification Procedure for MARPOL Annex VI Fuel Oil Samples

Chapter 8 - Problem results

Density

Injection viscosity

Water

Vanadium

Sodium

Sodium / Vanadium

Aluminium / Silicon

Carbon residue

Ash

Flash point

Pour point

Sulphur

Total Sediment Potential (TSP)

Cetane Index

Used Lubricating Oil

Microbiological contamination

Referee analysis

Witness

Challenge

 

Chapter 9 - Additional tests

FTIR

GC-MS

Fuel Ignition Analyser / Fuel Combustion Analyser

Turbiscan

Onboard tests

Proprietary tests

Viscosity

Density

Water content

Compatibility

Sulphur

Aluminium and Silicon

Emergency tests

Viscosity

Water

Sludge

 

Chapter 10 - The future

Appendix I - Where to go for help

Websites

Information and help

Technical Issues

Fuel specifications

Fuel sampling

Survey and analysis

Test methods

Publications

 

Appendix II - Abbreviations

Appendix III - Glossary

Index

Petrospot is a dynamic independent publishing, training and events organisation focused on the maritime, energy and transportation industries.

It delivers the highest quality strategic information in the most comprehensive and convenient formats – via magazines, websites and books, or face to face in conferences, exhibitions, seminars and training courses.

Based in Oxfordshire, England, Petrospot was established in May 2003 by Llewellyn Bankes-Hughes (Managing Director). He is supported by Lesley Bankes-Hughes (Director – Publishing), and Luci Llewellyn-Jones (Director – Events).

Title: An Introduction to Fuel Analysis
Number of Pages: 96
Product Code: PT1001K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-0-9548097-3-7 (9780954809737), ISBN 10: 0-9548097-3-4 (0954809734)
Published Date: May 2009
Binding Format: Paperback
Book Height: 210 mm
Book Width: 140 mm
Book Spine: 6 mm
Weight: 0.20 kg

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