As background to the development of this revised publication; concerns had been expressed, by OCIMF member companies and others, about an increase in the number of incidents involving anchor losses, windlass motor failures and associated personnel injuries. A review of third party anchoring incidents by an OCIMF member highlighted the following various issues. As a result of the review, it was agreed to revise and update the information contained in the original 1982 publication to assist in promulgating the lessons learnt from incidents, to provide improved information on anchoring practices and to recognise advances made in anchor systems in the intervening years. In particular, this publication highlights the design capabilities and limitations of anchoring systems and equipment with the aim of enhancing the safety of operations.
The scope of this publication addresses anchoring systems and procedures that are applicable to all vessel types, irrespective of their size
List of Figures
List of Tables
Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations
Purpose and Scope
Issues Associated with Anchoring Systems and Procedures
General Description of Anchoring Systems
3.1 Anchoring System
3.1.1 Basic Equipment Arrangement
3.1.2 Safety Aspects
3.1.3 Limitations of the Anchoring System
3.3 Chain Cable
3.4 Hawse Pipe
3.5 Anchor Lashing
3.6 Chain Stopper
3.7.2 Cable Lifter
3.7.3 Windlass Gears and Clutches
3.7.4 Stripper Bar
3.7.5 Windlass Brake Systems
188.8.131.52 Band Brake
184.108.40.206 Disc Brake
220.127.116.11 Brake Drum and Disc Material
18.104.22.168 Hydraulically Assisted Brakes
3.8 Drive Units
3.8.1 High Pressure Hydraulic Systems
22.214.171.124 Protection Against Catastrophic Failure
3.8.2 Low Pressure Hydraulic Systems
3.8.3 Electric Systems
126.96.36.199 Frequency Controlled
188.8.131.52 Pole Changing
3.9 Windlass Control Systems
3.9.1 Remote Control
3.9.2 Chain Counters
3.10 Spurling Pipe and Chain Locker
4.1 Design Standard
4.2 Design Philosophy of Anchoring Equipment
4.3 Environmental Forces Acting on a Ship at Anchor
4.4.1 Anchor Construction
4.4.2 Types of Anchor and Stowage
4.4.3 Holding Power of Anchors
4.5 Chain Cable
4.5.1 Length of Chain Cable
4.5.3 Cable Strength
4.5.4 Bitter End
4.6 Chain Stopper
4.7.1 Drive Units for Windlasses
4.8 Testing of Anchor Equipment and Systems
4.8.2 Chain Cable
4.8.4 Sea Trials
4.9 Interface Between Ship Structure and Anchoring Equipment
4.10 Arrangement of Equipment
4.10.1 Anchor Stowage and Hawse Pipe
4.10.2 Chain Lockers and Spurling Pipes
4.10.3 Access, Safety and Security
4.11 Additional Equipment
4.11.1 Cable Tension Monitoring System
4.11.2 Chain Counters and Speed Measurement
4.11.3 Remote Control Options
4.11.4 CCTV Monitoring Systems
5.1 Anchoring Procedures
5.1.2 Preparation for Anchoring
5.1.3 Methods of Anchoring
5.1.4 Commonly Used Anchoring Procedures
5.1.5 Conventional Buoy Moorings
5.2 Maintaining an Anchor Watch
5.2.1 Watchkeeping Responsibilities
5.2.2 Securing the Cable at Anchor
5.3 Getting Underway
5.3.1 Avoiding Damage to the Anchor System
5.3.2 Emergency Recovery of Anchor and Cable
5.4 Use of Anchors in an Emergency
Anchoring Systems and Procedures
6.1 Routine Maintenance
6.1.3 Flexible Hoses
6.1.4 Windlass Components
6.1.5 Windlass Drum Brakes
6.1.6 Chain Stopper
6.1.7 Chain Cable
6.2 Surveys and Inspections During Refit
6.2.1 Class Survey Procedures
6.2.2 Ranging and Inspection of Cable
6.2.3 Kenter Shackle
6.2.4 ‘D’ Shackle
6.2.5 Anchor Swivels
A An Example of Typical Planned Maintenance Activities
B An Example of Typical Refit Inspection, Survey and Maintenance Activities
C Example Certification for Anchor Chain Cable and Chain Cable Fittings
To access the eBook, you need to install our free Windows eBook Reader.
The application can be downloaded from:
Standalone eBooks are supplied with 1 licence + 1 backup and are not transferable between platforms.
Remote Desktop Services (Terminal Services) and virtual environments are not supported.
The Windows eBook Reader works with Windows XP or later OS (but not Windows RT).
See more details.
To access the eBook, you need to install the free Witherby Reader from
the iOS App Store.
iPad eBooks are supplied with 1 licence + 1 backup and are not transferable between platforms.
The iPad application works with iOS 6 or above (iPad 2 or later, iPad mini, not iPhone).
See more details.
Cloud (online) eBooks:
The Cloud (online) eBooks use Microsoft Silverlight browser plugin to deliver the best possible reading experience with the ability to work in offline mode.
It is an annual subscription service (i.e. each eBook is purchased for 1 year of use).
Online licences are not transferrable to Windows or iPad (or vice-versa).
Silverlight is compatible with the major web browsers used on Windows and Mac OS X operating systems.
However it is not supported on Linux, Android, Windows RT and iPad devices and therefore the Cloud eBooks use an HTML site in these instances.
The HTML site is more restricted than the Silverlight version.
See www.microsoft.com/silverlight/what-is-silverligh and more details.
Note for Mac Users:
Mac users can read Windows eBooks with Boot Camp or using virtual machines such as Parallels Desktop, Virtual Box, ...
Alternatively, Cloud (online) eBooks are accessible on Mac, including the Silverlight plugin with offline mode.
Note for Linux Users:
Linux users can read Windows eBooks using a virtual PC.
Alternatively, the HTML version of the Cloud (online) eBooks is accessible.
Note for Android and Windows RT Users:
Non-iOS tablets owners can use the HTML version of the Cloud (online) eBooks.