Ballast Water Management: Understanding the regulations and the treatment technologies available, 7th Edition

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Published Date

August 2016

Also available in other formats:

Ballast Water Management: Understanding the regulations and the treatment technologies available, 7th Edition

(Excludes any applicable taxes)

You need this Guide if:

  • You are concerned about the adoption of the Ballast Water Convention

  • You are uncertain about the BWM implications for your size of ship

  • You need guidance to understand which combination of the 60 BWM equipment components are most appropriate for your vessel type/vessel size or trade



Ballast Water Management Convention will enter into force on 8th September 2017.


Whether you already have a Ballast Water system implementation plan or not, this full and comprehensive guide will provide the information on the regulations and equipment options available that you need to make the transition to full compliance.



List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

PART ONE – Introduction and Background

CHAPTER ONE – The Issue in Recent Years

CHAPTER TWO – The Ship as a Carrier

2.1 Biofouling

2.2 Aquatic Species

2.3 Pathogens

2.4 Age of Ballast Water

2.5 Ballast Tank Configuration

PART TWO – Risk Management – Ballast Water Exchange is the First Measure

CHAPTER THREE – Ballast Water Exchange (BWE)

3.1 Ballast Water Exchange Operational Considerations

3.1.1 Geographic Location Requirements

3.1.2 Exchange Zones

3.1.3 Satellite Remote Colour Sensing

3.1.4 Salinity and Temperature

3.1.5 Time Required

3.1.6 Deviation

3.1.7 Need for Exchange

3.1.8 Safety Implications

3.2 Sequential Exchange Method

3.3 Flow Through Exchange Method

3.4 Ship Design and Ballasting

3.4.1 Natural Ballast Water Exchange Method

3.4.2 The Ballastless Ship

3.4.3 No Ballast On Board (NOBOB) Ships

3.4.4 Simple Design Solutions to Limit Sediment

3.5 BWM Options Summary

3.6 Ballast Operations Checklists

PART THREE – Regulations

CHAPTER FOUR – Ballast Water Management Legislation

CHAPTER FIVE – IMO Legislation

5.1 Legislation from the International Maritime Organization

5.1.1 Application of the BWM Convention

5.1.2 The IMO Approval Process

5.1.3 Historical Problems

5.1.4 Pertinent MEPC Discussions

CHAPTER SIX – United States Legislation

6.1 The US Coast Guard

6.1.1 USCG Discharge Standards for Concentration of Living Organisms in Ballast Water

6.1.2 USCG Final Rule Implementation Dates

6.1.3 USCG Extensions

6.1.4 Approval and AMS Acceptance

6.1.5 USCG Type Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems

6.1.6 The Shipboard Technology Evaluation Program (STEP)

6.1.7 The ETV (Environmental Technology Verification) Program

6.2 Environmental Protection Agency

6.3 State Legislation

6.3.1 Examples of US State Requirements that are, or plan to be, more Stringent than Phase 1 of USCG Requirements

6.3.2 States that have Aligned with Phase 1 of the USCG Standards

6.4 Summary of US Legislation

CHAPTER SEVEN – Local and Regional BW Regulations

CHAPTER EIGHT – The Financial Implications of BWM Legislation

8.1 Cost of Ballast Water Exchange

8.1.1 Enforcement Costs

8.2 Cost of Ballast Water Management Systems

8.2.1 Port-Based Treatment

PART FOUR – Implementation of Regulations

CHAPTER NINE – The Port State Authority

CHAPTER TEN – Ship Administration of BWM

10.1 The Ballast Water Management Plan

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Ship Particulars

10.1.3 Index

10.1.4 Purpose

10.1.5 Plans/Drawings and Description of the Ballast System

10.1.6 Additional Details

10.1.7 Safety Procedures for the Ship and the Crew

10.1.8 Duties of the Ballast Water Management Officer

10.2 Ballast Water Record Book

10.3 Surveys

10.3.1 Initial Survey

10.3.2 Intermediate Survey

10.3.3 Annual Survey

10.3.4 Renewal Survey

10.4 Certification

10.5 Ballast Water Reporting

10.5.1 Online Reports

10.5.2 Fax Reports

10.5.3 Postal/Mail-in Reports

10.6 Training

10.6.1 Support Level

10.6.2 Operational Level

10.6.3 Management Level

CHAPTER ELEVEN – Port States and Port State Control (PSC)

11.1 Existing Conditions

11.2 Notification

11.3 Inspection, Monitoring and Enforcement

11.3.1 IMO PSC Guidelines

CHAPTER TWELVE – Ballast Water Sampling/Monitoring

12.1 Monitoring Capability

12.2 Arrival Ballast Conditions

12.3 Monitoring Levels

12.3.1 Level 1 Monitoring/Sampling

12.3.2 Level 2 Monitoring/Sampling

12.3.3 Level 3 Monitoring/Sampling

12.4 Post-Treatment Monitoring

12.5 Sampling

12.5.1 Sampling Issues

12.5.2 Protective Equipment

12.6 Sediment

12.7 Test Methods

12.7.1 Colourimetric Test

12.7.2 Amperometry

12.7.3 Immunofluorescence

12.7.4 Flow Cytometry

12.8 Monitoring that Requires Tank Entry

12.9 Practical Considerations for Compliance with the D-2 Standards

CHAPTER THIRTEEN – Deposit and Exchange Facilities

13.1 Reception Facilities

13.1.1 Facility to Receive/Treat Ballast Water at Port

13.1.2 Sediment Reception Facility

PART FIVE – Regulatory Guidance

CHAPTER FOURTEEN – IMO Guidance on Ballasting


PART SIX – Treatment Systems and Operation

CHAPTER SIXTEEN – Introduction to Treatment Technologies

16.1 Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) Requirements

16.2 Technical Installation Issues

16.3 Retrofit Assistance

16.4 The Evolution of Ballast Water Management Systems

16.4.1 Ownership Changes

16.4.2 Cooperation within the Industry

16.4.3 BWMS Approvals (IMO and USCG)

16.4.4 BWMS Upgrades

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN – Physical Separation, Thermal, Ultraviolet and Plasma Technologies

17.1 Physical Separation

17.1.1 The Hydrocyclone

17.1.2 Screen Filtration

17.1.3 Disc Filtration

17.1.4 Limitations and Advantages of Physical Separation

17.2 Heat Treatment Technology

17.2.1 Limitations and Advantages of Heat Treatment Technology

17.3 Ultraviolet Radiation/Advanced Oxidation Technology

17.3.1 Limitations and Advantages of UV Radiation Technology

17.4 Plasma Technology

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN – Deoxygenation, Magnetic and Ultrasonic/Cavitation Technologies

18.1 Deoxygenation/Supersaturation Technology

18.1.1 Limitations and Advantages of Deoxygenation Technology

18.2 Magnetic/Electric Fields Technology

18.3 Ultrasonic and Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technology

18.3.1 Ultrasonic Technology

18.3.2 Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technology

CHAPTER NINETEEN – Chemical, Biocide and Electrochemical Technologies

19.1 Chemical and Biocide Technology

19.1.1 Limitations and Advantages of Chemical and Biocide Technology

19.1.2 Types of Biocide

19.1.3 Oxidising Biocide Residues

19.1.4 Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl)

19.1.5 Peroxygen Compounds

19.1.6 Ozone (O3)

19.1.7 Glutaraldehyde

19.1.8 Menadione

19.1.9 Acrolein

19.1.10 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

19.2 Electrochemical Technology

PART SEVEN – Components and Data Sheets

CHAPTER TWENTY – Filter Components used in the Assembly of a BWMS

20.1 Screen Filtration

20.1.1 The BOLLFILTER Automatic Filter Type 6.18.3C

20.1.2 Filtrex ACB® Filters

20.1.3 The Filtersafe® BS-Series Filters

20.1.4 The Krone Filter KAF Bernoulli Filters

20.1.5 MossHydro Filters

20.1.6 HYDAC Filters

20.1.7 Amiad Omega Series Filters

20.2 Disc Filtration

20.2.1 The Spin Klin® Automatic Disc Filter

CHAPTER TWENTY ONE – BW Systems with No Active Substances (G8)

21.1 Ultraviolet and Filter Systems

21.2 Ultraviolet and Pressure Vacuum Systems

21.3 UV Systems

21.4 Filtration Systems

21.5 Deoxygenation with Inert Gas

CHAPTER TWENTY TWO – BW Systems using Active Substances (G9)

22.1 Chemical Biocide Systems

22.2 Electrolysis Systems

22.3 Ozone Systems

22.4 Advanced Oxidation Systems

22.5 Ultraviolet and Plasma Systems

22.6 Unconventional BWMS

CHAPTER TWENTY THREE – Status of Systems


1 Key Invasive Species

1.1 The European Green Crab (Carcinus maenas)

1.2 Asian Kelp (Undaria pinnatifida) also known as Wakame

1.3 Fishhook Water Flea (Cercopagis pengoi)

1.4 Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) also known as the Shanghai Hairy Crab

1.5 Northern Pacific Sea Star (Asterias amurensis) also known as the Flatbottom Sea Star

1.6 Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

1.7 Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus)

1.8 North American Comb Jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi)

1.9 Toxic Algae (Producing Harmful Algal Blooms) (various species)

2 Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) (various strains)


Author’s References


Captain Nadeem Anwar graduated from the Pakistan Marine Academy in December 1983 and in 1984, went into shipping as a deck cadet on multi-purpose ships. In 1990, he started working on oil tankers and OBO’s. In 1994, he returned to Fleetwood and acquired a Chief Mates Certificate of Competency. He was promoted to Chief Officer in 1994 and continued to serve on VLCC, OBO, O/O, Gas and Chemical Tankers. He achieved his Master Certificate of Competency from MCA UK in early 1998 and went back to sea in command of VLCCs. His time at sea was mainly spent in deep-sea trade, which gave him a wide-ranging experience of navigating in different areas of the world.

In October 1998, he joined the Fleetwood Nautical Campus as a lecturer. In 2003, he became its Curriculum Manager. In 2005, he achieved a MSc in Maritime Operations with a Distinction (through LJMU) and an Advanced diploma in Insurance (through the Chartered Insurance Institute).

Captain Anwar has developed training courses and written a range of training materials. He also provides consultancy services to marine training providers and shipping companies.

Title: Ballast Water Management: Understanding the regulations and the treatment technologies available, 7th Edition
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: Seventh
Number of Pages: 374
Product Code: WS1520K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-717-8 (9781856097178), ISBN 10: 1-85609-717-X (185609717X)
Published Date: August 2016
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 280 mm
Book Width: 220 mm
Book Spine: 30 mm
Weight: 1.72 kg
Author: Nadeem Anwar

Customer Reviews

A must read! Review by Kathy J Metcalf
The book is far and away the most comprehensive publication I have seen on ballast water management and includes sections of ballast water exchange, international/national/regional/local ballast water regulations, the role of state control, shipboard implementation of the requirements, sampling/monitoring, shore reception facilities and an entire section on ballast water treatment and technologies.

Clearly a must read for all interested in trying to make sense out of the current state of affairs!

Kathy J Metcalf
President and CEO
Chamber of Shipping of America (Posted on 03/05/2017)
Ballast Water Essentials as Clock Ticks to Convention Review by NautilusTelegraphDec16
The long wait is over and the 2005 Ballast Water Management Convention is finally due to take effect on 8th September next year – bringing with it a whole load of new requirements for seafarers to follow.

Witherby Publishing has acted quickly to put this seventh edition of a truly comprehensive guide to the convention onto the market to provide extensive and up-to-date advice on compliance with the convention.

The book makes clear the scale of the task facing the industry and its personnel in rising to the regulatory challenge – with huge numbers of ships still to be equipped and big demands for crew training. As the introduction notes: ‘The knowledge and competence of the crew about operation of the specific BWMS onboard, as well as the record-keeping involved to verify compliance, are early indicators that a system is properly operated and compliant’.

This comprehensive and well-presented book makes a major contribution to raising understanding of the convention and what it means for those at the sharp end, ashore and afloat. It provides excellent background on the factors which drove the development of the convention and explores the significant operational considerations involved in meeting the regulatory requirements.

For seafarers, areas of particular interest and relevance are the sections covering reporting, training and safety procedures. There’s also handy guidance on issues such as sampling and monitoring, the duties of the BWM officer and the implementation of the ship’s BWM plan.

The book also explains the multitude of local and regional ballast water requirements, the many different ballast water treatment technologies, the inspection and enforcement regimes, and the provision of reception facilities. The clock is ticking – and there can surely be not better place to begin preparing than in these pages. (Posted on 19/01/2017)

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