Bulk Carrier Notes

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Published Date

August 2010

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Bulk Carrier Notes

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This book continues the ‘Notes’ series for cadets and junior officers and provides a valuable

introduction to bulk carriers, discussing vessel types, cargoes and trade.

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This publication for Ship's Officers provides a good modern introduction to bulk carriers and bulk cargoes, including cargo loading, draught survey, ballast water management, the voyage and cargo discharging. It also discuss the bulk trade and is illustrated with case studies.

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Bulk Carrier Design
1.2.1 Longitudinal Divisions
1.2.2 Cargo Holds and Hatches
1.2.3 Ballast Tanks
1.2.4 Fuel Tanks
1.2.5 Cargo Gear
1.2.6 Service speeds and fuel consumption
1.3 Types of Bulk Carriers by Size
1.3.1 Classification Society Notations for Bulk Carriers
1.4 Types of Bulk Carriers According to Trade
1.4.1 Ore Carriers
1.4.2 Oil/Bulk/Ore – OBO Ships
1.4.3 Self-Unloader Bulk Carriers
1.4.4 Open Hatch Bulk Carriers (OHBCs)
1.4.5 Forest Product Carriers
1.5 Hybrid Configuration (HyCon) Bulk Carriers
1.6 Stresses in Bulk Carriers
1.6.1 Hull Stress Monitoring System (HSMS) in Bulk Carriers
1.7 Structural Problems Associated with Bulk Carriers
1.7.1 Corrosion
1.7.2 Metal Fatigue
1.7.3 Operational Factors
1.7.4 Precautions to Overcome Structural Problems
1.7.5 Strengthening of Bulk Carriers
1.8 Structural Standards for Bulk Carriers
2 Bulk Cargoes
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Terminology Used in Bulk Cargo Operations
2.3 Recommended Publications for Bulk Cargo Carriage
2.3.1 The IMSBC Code
2.3.2 The International Grain Code
2.3.3 The SLU Code
2.4 Intact Stability Criteria According to the International Load Line Convention
2.4.1 Intact Stability Criteria for Dry Cargo Ships
2.5 Hazards Associated with Bulk Cargoes
2.5.1 Structural Damage due to High Density Cargoes
2.5.2 Shifting of Cargo
2.5.3 Liquefaction of Cargo
2.5.4 Self-Heating and Spontaneous Combustion
2.5.5 Generation of Gases
2.5.6 Oxygen Depletion
2.5.7 Corrosion and Other Chemical Hazards
2.5.8 Compatibility between Different Cargoes
2.5.9 Health Hazards from Dust
2.6 Examples of Bulk Cargoes
2.6.1 Grain
2.6.2 Coal
2.6.3 Iron Ore
2.6.4 Timber
2.6.5 Steel
3 Bulk Trade
3.1 The Voyage
3.2 Voyage Orders/Instructions
3.3 Charter Parties for Bulk Trade
3.3.1 Time Charter
3.3.2 Voyage Charter
3.3.3 Contract of Affreightment (COA)
3.4 Load Line Zones and Calculations
3.4.1 Load Line Calculations
4 Cargo Loading
4.1 Hold Preparation
4.1.1 Disposal of Dry Bulk Cargo Residues
4.2 Silver Nitrate Test
4.2.1 Cargo Hold Coatings
4.2.2 Hatch Covers
4.2.3 Other Parts of the Hatch Covers
4.2.4 Other Openings to the Cargo Holds
4.2.5 Stowage Planning
4.2.6 Cargo Plans
4.3 Ship Shore Information Exchange
4.3.1 Information from Ship to Shore
4.3.2 Information from Shore to Ship
4.4 Cargo Samples when Loading
4.5 Loading Methods
4.5.1 Grabs
4.5.2 Conveyors
4.5.3 Stacker
4.5.4 Reclaimer
4.6 Fumigation
4.6.1 Fumigant
4.7 Cargo Documentation
4.7.1 Mate’s Receipt
4.7.2 Bill of Lading (B/L)
4.7.3 Document of Compliance for the Carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes
4.7.4 Document of Authorisation for the Carriage of Grain in Bulk
4.7.5 Grain Loading Manual and other Stability Information
4.7.6 Plant Health Certificate
4.7.7 Certificate of Origin
4.7.8 TML and Moisture Content Certificate
4.7.9 Cargo Manifest
4.7.10 Dangerous Cargo Manifest (DCM)
4.7.11 Certificate of Hatch Sealing
4.7.12 Certificate of Quantity/Quality/Weight
4.7.13 Empty Hold Certificate
4.7.14 Cargo Trimming Certificate
4.7.15 Permit to Discharge Ballast Water
4.7.16 Cargo Hold Coating Compliance Certificate
4.7.17 Damage Report/Form
4.8 Loading Cargo During Rain
4.8.1 Other Hazards
5 Draught Survey
5.1 Objective of Draught Survey
5.2 Steps for Draught Survey
5.3 Reading Draughts
5.3.1 Reading Draughts in Swell Without an Instrument
5.3.2 Using Draught Measurement Equipment
5.3.3 Precautions for Taking Draught Readings
5.4 Taking Density
5.4.1 Density of Water
5.4.2 Using a Hydrometer for Measurement of Density
5.4.3 Precautions when using a Hydrometer
5.4.4 Density of Cargo
5.5 Cargo Weight, Volume and Ullage Measurement
5.6 Bunker Quantity Estimation
5.7 Precautions During Draught Survey
5.8.1 Definitions
5.8.2 Deductibles
5.8.3 List Correction
5.8.4 Draught Corrections
5.8.5 Hull Deflection Correction
5.8.6 Trim Corrections
5.8.7 Density Correction
5.8.8 Worked Example Draught Survey
5.9 Deadweight Surveys
6 Ballast Water Management
6.1 Ballast Water Exchange Methods
6.1.1 Exchange Methods
6.1.2 Ballast Treatment
6.1.3 Controlled Ballast
6.2 Ballast Water Exchange Requirements
6.3 Ballast Water Management System
6.3.1 BWM Certificate and Inspections
6.3.2 Ballast Water Record Book
7 The Voyage
7.1 Conditions of Carriage
7.1.1 Incoterms - International Commercial Terms
7.1.2 Hague and Hague-Visby Rules
7.2 Ventilation
7.3 Discharging Hold Bilges
7.4 Periodic Checks
7.4.1 Departure from the Loading Port
7.4.2 Cargo Care on Passage
7.4.3 Physical Inspection of Vessel
7.4.4 Arrival at the Discharge Port
7.5 Logs and Record Keeping
7.6 BLU Manual
7.7 Bulk Carrier Loading Manual
8 Cargo Discharging
8.1 Discharging Plan
8.2 Arrival at the Discharge Port
8.3 Notice of Readiness
8.4 Cargo Samples when Discharging
8.5 Cargo Calculation - Draught Survey
8.6 Discharging Methods
8.6.1 Grabs
8.6.2 Vacuators
8.7 Cargo Damage Surveys
8.8 Hold Damage Surveys
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Case Studies




MICS, PG Cert. (Shipping), MSc. (CBIS), HND Nautical Science, BSc. (Maritime Studies)

Awarded the President of Pakistan Gold Medal for best cadet during B.Sc. Maritime Studies at Pakistan Marine Academy, he received the High Achievement Award and the Merchant Navy Association (Tasmania) prize on completion of the second mate from the Australian Maritime College.

After obtaining and HND in Nautical Science from the Blackpool and Fylde College in 2000, he earned an M.Sc in Computer Based Information Systems from the University of Sunderland. After this, he sailed for a while but the incidents of 9/11/2001 made him pursue a shore based career. He moved to New Zealand and studied for the Graduate Certificate in Shipping at the New Zealand Maritime School.

In June 2003, Abdul moved to SSNS at the NAFC Marine Centre as an HND Nautical Science course developer. He continued in this position until the Centre started training cadets, when he became a lecturer in Nautical studies. While in this position, he passed the Institute of Chartered Ship Brokers examination and has recently been elected as a member of the Institute.

Title: Bulk Carrier Notes
Number of Pages: 188
Product Code: 4370
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-399-6 (9781856093996), ISBN 10: 1-85609-399-9 (1856093999)
Published Date: August 2010
Binding Format: Paperback
Book Height: 235 mm
Book Width: 155 mm
Book Spine: 12 mm
Weight: 0.50 kg
Author: Abdul Khalique

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