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October 2012


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Bulk Liquid Chemical Handling Guide for Plants, Terminals, Storage & Distribution Depots (BLCH Guide)

$796.36
(Excludes any applicable taxes)

The BLCH Guide was developed to provide a basic yet comprehensive and practical guideline, covering all aspects of typical chemical tank terminal activities, from basic design and layout to the ongoing safe and efficient operation, maintenance and management of the facility.

 

View further information at our dedicated website www.chemicalhandling.org  

 

PUBLISHED DATE: OCTOBER 2012
No. OF PAGES: 582

 

     

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The Bulk Liquid Chemical Handling Guide (BLCH) is the only publication of its kind in the world. The text and imagery within this title provide chemical, terminal and supply chain companies with valuable knowledge and insight into handling bulk liquid chemical products. BLCH follows the chapters of the CDI Terminal Inspection Report, furnishing guidance to terminal managers, employees and inspectors in addressing the management functions and technical operations of a bulk liquid chemical storage terminal. Acknowledging regional legislation and focused on Health, Safety, Environment and Security, the guide is a single international reference offering solutions and alternatives to achieve safe and efficient operational performance.

   

VOLUME I
1. Chemicals and their Classification
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Regulatory Considerations
1.3 Basic Chemistry
1.4 Chemical Gases
1.5 Petrochemical Products
1.6 The Polymer Industry
1.7 Oleochemicals
1.8 Some Common Liquid Products Requiring Bulk Storage
1.9 Implications of Chemical Characteristics
1.10 Naming and Numbering Chemicals
1.11 Chemical Classification Systems
1.12 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
1.13 Special Information or Product Specific Requirements
References and Further Reading
2. Storage Tanks and Equipment
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Regulatory Considerations
2.3 Risk Assessment
2.4 Overview of Tank Types
2.5 Location and Layout of Tanks
2.6 General Tank Design and Construction
2.7 Pipework Systems and Pumps
2.8 Common Fittings and Fixtures
2.9 Earthing and Bonding
2.10 Gauging, Temperature Measurement and Sampling
2.11 Vapour and Emission Control
2.12 Bunds and Drains (also Referred to as Dikes)
2.13 Fire Safety
2.14 Operational Issues
2.15 Tank Cleaning
2.16 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
3. Product Transfer Equipment
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Regulatory Considerations
3.3 Risk Assessment
3.4 General Considerations
3.5 Pumps
3.6 Pipes
3.7 Valves
3.8 Hoses
3.9 Loading Arms
3.10 Couplings and Gaskets
3.11 Measuring Systems
3.12 Ancillary Equipment
3.13 Earthing and Bonding
3.14 Operational Issues
3.15 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
4. Vapour and Emission Control
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Air Quality Management
4.3 Problems Associated with Emissions
4.4 Product Characteristics and Equipment Choice
4.5 Emissions Reduction Programmes
4.6 Sources of Emissions
4.7 Emission Monitoring and Control
4.8 Vapour Lines and Ancillary Equipment
4.9 Flame and Detonation Arresters
4.10 Blowers and Eductors
4.11 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
4.12 Emissions from Incidents and Accidents
References and Further Reading
5. Jetty and Shipping
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Regulatory Considerations
5.3 Risk Assessment
5.4 Design and Construction
5.5 Jetty Infrastructure
5.6 Cargo Transfer Equipment
5.7 Waste Handling Facilities
5.8 Jetty Operations
5.9 Emergency Response
5.10 Jetty Security
5.11 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
6. Road and Rail
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Regulatory and Terminal Considerations
6.3 Road and Rail Loading Station Risk Assessments
6.4 Loading and Unloading Infrastructure
6.5 Loading Station Product Transfer Equipment and Systems
6.6 Operations
6.7 Emergency Response
6.8 Security
6.9 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
7. Warehousing and Drumming
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Regulatory Requirements
7.3 Risk Assessment and Management
7.4 Product Hazards and Classification
7.5 Dangerous Goods Packaging Requirements
7.6 Labelling of Drums and IBCs
7.7 Drumming
7.8 Warehouse and Infrastructure
7.9 Product Implications and Warehouse Types
7.10 Storage Arrangements
7.11 Training
7.12 Drum and IBC Filling
7.13 Warehousing Operations
7.14 Pallets
7.15 Fire Safety
7.16 Emergency Response
7.17 Security
7.18 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
8. Hazardous Area Classification
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Regulatory Considerations
8.3 Hazardous Area Classification Systems
8.4 Fire and Explosion
8.5 Product Characteristics
8.6 Hazardous Area Classification – Assessing the Risk
8.7 Documentation
8.8 Overview of ATEX Requirements
8.9 Vehicles as Mobile Sources of Ignition
8.10 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading

VOLUME II

9. Fire Safety
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Regulatory Considerations
9.3 Classification of Fires
9.4 Terminal Fire and Explosion Hazard Areas
9.5 Fire-Related Hazards
9.6 Fire and Explosion Hazard Management (FEHM)
9.7 Fire Prevention
9.8 Fire and Flammable Vapour Detection
9.9 Fire Protection
9.10 Fire Response Strategies and Options
9.11 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
10. Buildings
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Regulatory Considerations
10.3 Building Risk Assessments
10.4 Fires
10.5 Toxic Materials
10.6 Explosions
10.7 Management of Change
10.8 Terminal Layout and Buildings
10.9 General Ventilation Issues
10.10 Emergency Response
10.11 Security
10.12 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
11. Solid and Liquid Waste
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Regulatory Compliance
11.3 Terminal Waste Inventory
11.4 Water Management
11.5 Sewers, Drains and Bunds
11.6 Water Collection and Treatment Facilities
11.7 Cleaning
11.8 Waste
11.9 Waste Handling
11.10 Carriage and Disposal of Hazardous Waste
11.11 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
12. Electrical Equipment and Power Distribution
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Regulatory Considerations
12.3 Risk Assessment
12.4 System Drawings and Schedules
12.5 Substations and Switch Rooms
12.6 Cables and Ancillary Equipment
12.7 Motors and Ancillary Equipment
12.8 Lighting
12.9 Transportable and Portable Equipment
12.10 Alternative Energy Sources
12.11 Earthing and Static Protection
12.12 Cathodic Protection
12.13 Fire Safety
12.14 Emergency Response
12.15 Security Arrangements
12.16 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
13. Traffic Circulation and Control
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Regulatory and Terminal Considerations
13.3 Traffic Circulation Risk Assessments
13.4 Vehicle Safety
13.5 General Design Principles for Roads and Facilities
13.6 General Traffic Management
13.7 Receipts and Deliveries
13.8 Driver Requirements and Control
13.9 Emergency Response
13.10 Security
13.11 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
14. Personnel Safety
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Factors Affecting Health and Safety
14.3 Occupational Health Controls
14.4 Personal Protective Equipment
14.5 Job Safety Analysis
14.6 Permit to Work Systems
References and Further Reading
15. Emergency Response
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Regulatory Considerations
15.3 Assessment of Risks and Consequences
15.4 Emergency Preparedness
15.5 Emergency Response Plans (ERP)
15.6 Post Incident Cleanup and Recovery
15.7 Information and Training
15.8 Resources (Manpower/Equipment/Materials)
15.9 Security Arrangements
15.10 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
16. Security
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Regulatory Considerations
16.3 Security Risk Assessment
16.4 Security Plan
16.5 Security Performance Standards
16.6 Security Training
16.7 Site Security
16.8 Security and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods
16.9 Pipeline Security
16.10 Jetty Security
16.11 CCTV Cameras
16.12 Computer and Document Security
16.13 Security Against Insider Activities
16.14 Security and Emergency Response
16.15 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance
References and Further Reading
17. Management of the Terminal
17.1 Level 1 – Policies and Procedures
17.2 Level 2 – Objectives and Management Plans
17.3 Level 3 – Operational Disciplines

 

Abbreviations

AAR Association of American Railroads
ABS Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
AC Alternating current
ACEP Approved container examination programme
ADSL Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line
AFFF Aqueous film forming foam
AIB Asbestos insulating board
ALARP As low as reasonably practicable
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Institute
ATEX Directive regarding explosive atmospheres (from Atmosphères Explosibles)
BA Breathing apparatus
BLEVE Boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion
BLU Code Code of Practice for the Safe Loading and Unloading of Bulk Carriers
BOD Biological oxygen demand
BPEO Best practical environmental option
BS EN British Standards European Norm
C2H2 Ethyne (acetylene)
C2H4 Ethene (ethylene)
C2H6 Ethane
C2H8 Butylene
C3H6 Propylene
C3H8O3 Propane-1,2,3-triol
C4H6 Buta-1,3-diene
C4H10 n-Butane
CAD Computer aided design
CAF Compressed asbestos fibre
CAS Chemical Abstracts Service
CB Circuit breaker
CCNR Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine
CCTV Closed circuit television
CDI Chemical Distribution Institute
CDI-M CDI-Marine
CDI-T CDI-Terminals
CDM Construction, design and management
CE Conformité Européenne (European conformity)
CENELEC Comité Européen De Normalisation
CFD Computational fluid dynamics
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CH4 Methane
CIRIA Construction Industry Research and Information Association
Cl Chlorine
CLP Regulation European Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on Classification, Labelling and
Packaging of Substances and Mixtures
CO Carbon monoxide
CO2 Carbon dioxide
COA Certificate of analysis
COD Chemical oxygen demand
COMAH Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999
COW Crude oil washing
COWS Crude oil washing system
CP Centipoise
CPC Circuit protective conductor
CPI Corrugated plate interceptor
CS Carbon steel
CSA Canadian Standards Association
CSC International Convention for Safe Containers 1972
CSC Container survey certificate
CT Current transformer
CTU Cargo transport unit
DAF Dissolved air flotation
DAS Dissipation array system
DC Direct current
DCMA Double counterweight marine arm
DCS Distributed control system
DDOS Distributed denial of service
DG Dangerous goods
DGSA Dangerous Goods Safety Advisor
DME Dimethyl ether
DO Dissolved oxygen
DOS Declaration of Security
DOS Denial of Service
DPD The Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC)
DSD The Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)
DVB Divinylbenzene
DWT Deadweight
EC CHIP Chemicals hazard information and packaging for supply
ECC Emergency control centre
EDI Electronic data interchange
EEMUA Engineering Equipment and Materials Users’ Association
EFRT External floating roof tank
EINECS European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances
EIV Emergency isolation valve
ELINCS European List of Notified Chemical Substances
EMS Environmental management system
EmS Guide Emergency Response Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ERC Emergency release couplings
ERP Emergency response plans
ERS Emergency release system
ESD Emergency shutdown
ESFR Early suppression fast response
ETBE Ethyl tert-butyl ether
FBMA Fully balanced marine arm
FEHM Fire and explosion hazard management
FFFP Film forming fluoroprotein
FIFO First in first out
FMEA Failure modes and effects analysis
FOSFA The Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fats Associations
FP Fluoroprotein
FRP Fibreglass reinforced polyester
FRT Fixed roof tank
FSA Facility Security Assessment
FSO Facility Security Officer
FSP Facility Security Plan
GFCI Ground fault circuit interrupter
GFP General fire precautions
GHS Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals
GMA Glycidyl methacrylate
GVW Gross vehicle weight
H2O Water
H2S Hydrogen sulphide
H2SO4 Sulphuric acid
HAC Hazardous area classification
HAP Hazardous air pollutant
HAVS Hand-arm vibration syndrome
HAZAN Hazard analysis
HAZID Hazard identification
HAZOP Hazard and operability analysis
HCl Hydrogen chloride
HCN Hydrogen cyanide
HDPE High density polyethylene
HEA Hydroxyethyl acrylate
HLCO High level cut-off
HMPE High modulus polyethylene
HPA Hydroxypropyl acrylate
HSE Health and Safety Executive
HSE Health, safety and environment
IAF Induced air flotation
IAPH International Association of Ports and Harbors
IBC Intermediate bulk container
IBC Code International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk
ICI Imperial Chemical Industries
ICS International Chamber of Shipping
IDLH Immediately dangerous to life and health
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IECEx International Electrotechnical Commission System for Certification to standards relating to equipment for use in explosive atmospheres
IED Improvised explosive device
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IES Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
IFRT Internal floating roof tank
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code
IMO International Maritime Organization
IP Ingress protection
IP Code Institute of Petroleum (IP) Code
ISA International Society of Automation
ISGINTT International Safety Guide for Inland Navigation Tank-barges and Terminals
ISGOTT International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISPS Code International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code
IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
JSA Job safety analysis
kPa Kilopascal
KPI Key performance indicator
kW KilowattLAH Level alarm high
LAHH Level alarm high-high
LC50 Lethal concentration, 50%
LD50 Lethal dose, 50%
LED Light-emitting diode
LEL Lower explosive limit
LEV Local exhaust ventilation
LFL Lower flammable limit
LOA Length overall
LOC Limiting oxygen concentration
LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
LSA Low specific activity
LSHH Level switch high-high
MAPP Major accident prevention policy
MARPOL 73/78 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 as
amended by the Protocol of 1978
MAWP Maximum allowable working pressure
MBL Maximum breaking limit
MCA Maritime and Coastguard Agency
MCB Miniature circuit breaker
MCCB Moulded case circuit breaker
MCERTS Monitoring Certification Scheme (set up by the UK Environment Agency)
MCF Minimum continuous flow
MEV Mechanical extract ventilation
MIE Minimum ignition energy
mJ Milli joule
MLSS Mixed liquor suspended solids
MoC Management of change
MOC Minimum oxygen concentration
MP/AR foam Multi-purpose/alcohol resistant foam
MS Methylstyrene
MSDS Material safety data sheet
MTBE Methyl tert-butyl ether
MVCS Marine vapour control system
MWP Maximum working pressure
N2 Nitrogen
NaOH Sodium hydroxide
NDT Non-destructive testing
NEC National Electric Code
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NH3 Anhydrous ammonia
NiCd Nickel cadmium
NiMH Nickel-metal hydride
NO Nitrogen monoxide
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
NORM Naturally occuring radioactive material
NOx Nitrogen oxide
NPRA National Petrochemical and Refiners Association
O Ozone
OCB Oil circuit breaker
OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
OSHA US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PCB Polychlorinated biphenyls
PEL Permissible exposure limit
PERC Powered emergency release coupling
PES Programmable electronic system
PFSO Port Facility Security Officer
PFSP Port Facility Security Plan
PM10 Particulate matter with pa
rticles measuring 10 μm or less
PMS Planned maintenance system
POPs Persistent organic pollutants
PPE Personal protective equipment
psi Pounds per square inch
PSN Proper shipping name
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTW Permit to work
PTZ Pan tilt zoom
PVA Polyvinyl alcohol
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PVRV Pressure vacuum relief valve
PV valve Pressure vacuum valve
QCDC Quick connect/disconnect coupling
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
Quantitative Risk Analysis 

Quantified Risk Assessment
Qualitative Risk Analysis
RCCB Residual current circuit breaker
RCD Residual current devices
RCMA Rotary counterweight marine arm
RCMS Responsible care management system
REACH Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals
RFID Radio-frequency identification
RGA Retractable grounding assembly
RME Rapeseed methyl ester
ROPS Roll-over protection system
ROSOV Remotely operated shutoff valve
RPE Respiratory protective equipment
RV point Rendezvous point
RWP Rated working pressure
SAF Submerged aerated filters
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCBA Self-contained breathing apparatus
SD Synthetic detergent
SDS Safety data sheet
SELV Separated or Safety extra low voltage
SG Specific gravity
SIGTTO Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators
SIRE Ship Inspection Report Programme
SMS Safety management system
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974
SPZ Source protection zone
SS Stainless steel
SS Suspended solids
STCW International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
STP Standard temperature and pressure
STS Ship to ship
SUDS Sustainable drainage systems
SVP Saturated vapour pressure (or saturation vapour pressure)
SWL Safe working load
T-Class Temperature class
T-Rating Temperature rating
TAC Toxic air contaminant
TAME Tertiary amyl methyl ether
TBC Tertiary butyl catechol
TDI Toluene diisocyanate
TLV Threshold limit value
TPI Tilted plate interceptor
TQM Total quality management
TREM Card Transport and emergency cards
TSS Total suspended solids
TWA Time-weighted average
UEL Upper explosive limit
UFL Upper flammable limit
UKC Underkeel clearance
UNSCETDG United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
UPS Uninterruptible power supply
USCG United States Coast Guard
VAM Vinyl acetate monomer
VCE Vapour cloud explosion
VCF Volume correction factors
VCM Vinyl chloride monomer
VLCC Very large crude carrier
VMDS Vehicle mounted data system
VOC Volatile organic compound
VRU Vapour recovery unit
WBV Whole-body  

Title: Bulk Liquid Chemical Handling Guide for Plants, Terminals, Storage & Distribution Depots (BLCH Guide)
Number of Pages: 582
Product Code: ws1355K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-519-8 (9781856095198), ISBN 10: 1-85609-519-3 (1856095193)
Published Date: October 2012
Weight: 3.10 kg
Author: Chemical Distribution Institute

Customer Reviews

ostensibly a handbook for those subject to CDI-T inspection but in reality an encyclopaedic summary of everything you need to know about chemical terminals, depots and product handling Review by Hazardous Cargo Bulletin October 2012
How to do it all

SAFETY This month sees the publication of the BLCH Guide, ostensibly a handbook for those subject to CDI-T inspection but in reality an encyclopaedic summary of everything you need to know about chemical terminals, depots and product handling

The Chemical Distribution Institute (CDI) has been instrumental over the past 15 years or so in improving standards in the chemical and gas tanker shipping sectors and in bulk storage terminals handling liquid chemicals. Its CDI-T inspection protocol, which is part of the European chemical industry’s application of the Responsible Care precepts, has spread beyond its original bounds and is now recognised worldwide as an objective and useful system of third-party verification, used by cargo owners and terminals themselves as a means of benchmarking quality.
CDI’s expertise in the terminals sector has now been bundled into a two-volume, 560-page handbook, the Bulk Liquid Chemical Handling Guide for Plants, Terminals, Storage and Distribution Depots, handily abbreviated as the (BLCH) Guide, published for the first time this month.
The stated aim of the Guide is to provide detailed guidance for managers and employees at terminals and other facilities and for terminal inspectors when answering the questions contained in the CDI Terminal Inspection Protocol. However, CDI says, it should also be useful to anyone involved in bulk liquid chemical handling, either as a terminal or as a service provider.
Indeed, the list of potential readers includes not just terminals but chemical shippers, chemical shipowners, road tanker operators, chemical processing facilities and those companies that provide equipment and services to storage terminal facilities.
One world vision
CDI does not set standards. Similarly, the BLCH Guide does not offer an industry standard but, rather, recognises the requirements of applicable legislation in various territories. It also references industry best practice for the safe and secure handling of bulk liquid chemicals, as provided for by the various international, regional and national standards-setting bodies and by respected industry associations.
To meet corporate and legal requirements, chemical companies storing products at terminals around the world need to ensure that they all meet generally accepted minimum technical and operational standards, both local and international. Some terminals are located in countries or regions where there are established high standards and strict regulatory requirements and controls that have been established and implemented over decades. Some are located where standards and regulatory requirements and controls are in varying stages of development or implementation.
The BLCH Guide provides guidance on the various solutions available to achieve an international level of consistency for safe and high quality operation of bulk liquid chemical terminals and the handling of liquid chemicals in bulk in the associated transport and distribution sectors. That guidance is spelled out in 17 chapters covering:

- chemicals and their classification
- storage tanks and their equipment
- product transfer equipment
- vapour and emissions control
- jetties and shipping
- road and rail connections
- drumming and warehousing
- hazardous area classification
- fire safety
- buildings
- solid and liquid waste
- electrical and power distribution
- traffic circulation and control
- personnel safety
- emergency response
- security, and
- management of the terminal.

Meeting a need
The need for the Guide is outlined by Capt Howard Snaith, CDI’s general manager: “In addition to chemical industry demands for a robust inspection scheme, CDI receives a constant stream of enquires from the bulk liquid chemical storage industry, seeking guidance and understanding of best industry practice. CDI’s primary objective is to constantly improve the operating standards of the supply chain, and whilst the global players generally have excellent standards of operation, there remains an obligation for CDI to raise operating standards of all players.

“Compliance in the world fleet of chemical tankers is relatively easy to measure against international regulations and the abundance of established best industry practice. In sharp contrast, for the bulk liquid chemical storage industry, there is no international legislation and the national legislation differs widely from one region of the world to another. Both the chemical industry and the storage industry require an industry reference, a quick guide to provide answers for the terminal manager, the supply chain manager, the employee, the surveyor and not least as a teaching reference for the next generation. Additionally and most important, the reference has to be international to bring the global consistency that is desired.”

As the process of putting the Guide together went along, however, it became clear that it had wider applicability. Snaith continues: “Originally it was envisaged that the Guide would be an essential handbook for both the chemical and bulk liquid storage industries. However, as the work progressed, it has become clear that the publication will be valuable to a much wider group of industries. A liquid storage terminal has so many operations taking place, each with individual and critical disciplines: tanks, drumming, packaging, road and rail, ships, barges, waste water, emergency response, etc, all requiring the application of best industry practice. Information exists, but from so many sources that it is fragmented and often difficult to locate; no single publication brings the data together in one volume of internationally consistent best practice. This publication will provide answers for the numerous employee groups involved in the whole chemical distribution industry, and beyond.”

Publisher Witherby Seamanship has set up a dedicated website for the Guide, which contains more details about the book and also full ordering details – go to www.chemicalhandling.org for full information.
(Posted on 18/03/2013)
Very useful Guide! Review by H.W.E, The Netherlands
I have read The BLCH Guide and in my opinion is a very useful guide to all persons involved working in the concerned environment. (Posted on 15/11/2012)
From this Guide, we also learn many best practices which are of higher standard than that of our daily operation. So, we are sure, with this Guide, we can practice better. Review by Gu Min
(BLCH) Guide gives us very detail instructions on Bulk Liquid Chemical handling, which we think is very useful and practical to both our daily operation and terminal management.
For example, in Chapter 17, it gives us an example on a work permit for entry into enclosed or confined space, which we think is very useful.

From this Guide, we also learn many best practices which are of higher standard than that of our daily operation. So, we are sure, with this Guide, we can practice better.

Thank you very much for contribute such a chemical handling Bible to us.
(Posted on 19/10/2012)

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