Bunkers - An Analysis of the Technical and Environmental Issue (eBook)

Published Date

February 2013

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Bunkers - An Analysis of the Technical and Environmental Issue (eBook)

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This book provides comprehensive information about the technical aspects of bunkering including marine fuel specifications, environmental regulations, abatement technology, sampling, measurements, testing, fuel quality characteristics, marine engines and claims handling.

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Clearly some technology has not changed since 2004, such as refining and basic fuel handling and treatment and some test methods. For completeness, these fundamentals have been included in this edition, along with the many changes and new developments in fuel specifications, environmental matters, contaminants, testing technology and quantity determination.

This book discusses the future uses of different types of fuel, their availability and prices, how regulations will change and how laboratories will analyse this changing mix.

More stringent environmental regulations, price volatility and the dramatic slow-down in world demand for goods moved by ship has occurred while there has been an unprecedented increase in the world fleet, and this new edition comprehensively covers the cost implications of all these factors.

Credit risk assessment and ship arrest for non-payment of bunker bills are covered, as are market developments such as the impact of slow steaming and the increasing interest in alternative fuels such as liquefied natural gas, bio fuels and even nuclear.

The authors hope that with a better understanding of the complex issues involved with bunkering the number of disputes and claims can be reduced or handled in a more efficient and professional manner. The market and environmental sections should be of interest to the bunker supply industry, shipowners and charterers, especially those involved with planning and ship design and future operations.

The contents of this book have been selected on the basis that they will be of value to a wide audience, including marine engineering students, seagoing engineers, technical managers, members of the legal profession, insurers, owners and charterers of ships, fuel suppliers, environmentalists, abatement and marine technologists as well as those involved with surveying, inspection and testing of marine fuels.




The authors


Chapter 1 - The bunker market – supply and demand forecast


Fuel types

Market tonnage

Post-2030 outlook


Chapter 2 - Marine fuel production

Crude oil (petroleum)

Oil sand

Oil shales

Crude oil quality

Paraffinic-based crude oils

Naphthenic-based crude oils

Asphaltic crude oils


Vacuum distillation




Catalytic cracking


Residual fuel blending

Blend components

Blend targets

Blend calculations

Flash point

The physical process of blending

Blending onboard ship

Fuel distribution and supply

Chapter 3 - Marine fuel specifications

ISO 8217:2005 - Distillate fuels

ISO 8217:2005 - Residual fuels

ISO 8217:2010

Distillate fuels

Residual fuels


ISO 8217:2010 – key paragraphs

Market reactions to the 2010 standard

ISO 8217:2012

Oil company fuel specifications

Chapter 4 - Environmental regulations





Greenhouse gas – Chapter 4 - Annex VI

Market-based measures

European Union Directives

Other established regulations

The future

Chapter 5 - Abatement technology



Types of SOx scrubbers

Other approaches to abatement

Comparison of SOx systems

NOx removal

Bunker prices

System selection criteria

Environmental impact

The potential abatement market

Chapter 6 - Efficiency and alternative fuels


Explanation of the BIMCO Slow Steaming Clause for Time Charter Parties

BIMCO Slow Steaming Clause for Time Charter Parties

New build technologies

The disadvantages of LNG as a marine fuel

Sustainable fuels

Future marine fuels.172

Chapter 7 - The role of traders, brokers, physical suppliers and fuel purchasers

Purchasing strategy



Physical suppliers

Enquiries and quotation

Terms and conditions of sale

Delivery procedures

Safety and pollution prevention

ISO 13739


Bunkering in Singapore

Chapter 8 - Sampling, manual measurement and metering

International and national sampling standards

Singapore Bunkering Procedure CP 60:1996 and Code of Practice for Bunkering


Sampling from the delivery pipeline

Tank sampling

Tank sampling equipment and usage

Sampling fuel during consumption

Sample records, labelling, sealing and packaging

Safety measures when sampling

Quantity determination

The bunker delivery receipt

Cappuccino bunkers


Chapter 9 - An introduction to marine engines, boilers and fuel treatment systems

Diesel engines

Engine components

Marine boilers

Types of boilers

Bunker tanks and fuel treatment systems

The role of double bottom tanks in the fuel treatment process

Purifiers and clarifiers (centrifuges)



Service tanks

Heating for injection

Fuel booster systems

Chapter 10 - Fuel quality characteristics – their commercial and technical importance



Flash point

Pour point

Carbon residue




Vanadium and sodium

Potassium and sodium

Aluminium and silicon




Ignition quality


Hydrogen sulphide


Oxidation stability

Used lubricants

BP/Alfa Laval study (1999)

Specific energy

Other contaminants in bunker fuels


Chemical waste

Styrene and Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)

Chapter 11 - Testing – routine and investigative

Laboratory test methods

Sample size

Outline description of test methods


Density by oscillating tube method

Viscosity (at measured temperature)


Ostwald U-Tube

Water (by distillation)

Bryant Strawn & Walker (BS & W) (IP75/82)

Carbon residue

Flash point

Pour point (upper)


Sulphur by x-ray fluorescence




Cleanliness and compatibility

Alternative stability tests

Ignition quality – distillate fuels

Ignition quality – residual fuels

Specific energy (calorific value) – gross and net

Visual appearance (DMX and DMA grades only)

Acid number

Oxidation stability


Hydrogen sulphide

Investigative, non-routine testing


BP method for determination of polypropylene in residual fuel by filtration and FTIR

Ignition and combustion quality

Contamination of fuels with unknown substances

Direct injection GC-MS

Direct injection GC-MS of isolated and converted/derivitised components

GC-MS pyrolysis/probe analysis


Repeatability and reproducibility of test methods

Interpretation of test results

Sulphur content dispute resolution in accordance with MARPOL Annex VI and ISO 8217

ISO 4259 dispute procedure

MARPOL verification procedure

Nominating a fuel to comply with MARPOL sulphur limits

Chapter 12 - Claims handling – management of quantity and quality disputes

Gathering the evidence

Scope of survey

Opening meeting – who’s who and what is what

Survey notebook

Bunker audit

Tank content history

Fuel consumption


Bunker storage tanks

Settling and service tanks

Fuel system samples

Sludge samples

De-bunkering samples

Sealing and sample distribution

Delivery samples

Photographs of sampling and samples

Machinery survey

Sludge and deposit samples

Damaged component samples.



Evaluation of a fuel’s suitability for consumption



Conventional separator

High density centrifuges

Water content

Flash point

Pour point

Carbon residue


Aluminium and silicon



Total sediment



Acid number



Petrospot is a dynamic independent publishing, training and events organisation focused on the maritime, energy and transportation industries.

It delivers the highest quality strategic information in the most comprehensive and convenient formats – via magazines, websites and books, or face to face in conferences, exhibitions, seminars and training courses.

Based in Oxfordshire, England, Petrospot was established in May 2003 by Llewellyn Bankes-Hughes (Managing Director). He is supported by Lesley Bankes-Hughes (Director – Publishing), and Luci Llewellyn-Jones (Director – Events).

Title: Bunkers - An Analysis of the Technical and Environmental Issue (eBook)
Edition: Fourth
Number of Pages: 349
Product Code: PT1014EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-908663-02-3 (9781908663023), ISBN 10: 1-908663-02-2 (1908663022)
Published Date: February 2013

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