Bunkers - An Analysis of the Practical, Technical and Legal Issues (eBook)

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Published Date

January 2004

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Bunkers - An Analysis of the Practical, Technical and Legal Issues (eBook)

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This publication covers almost every aspect of bunkering in a concise, detailed but easy-to-read format. It offers almost 400 pages of text, charts, diagrams and graphs making it the most comprehensive training tool for readers at any level of expertise, knowledge and experience of bunkering. This book is of interest to maritime lawyers, marine engineers, insurers, shipping and bunkering companies, fuel purchasers and charterers.

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“The book is a classic.”
Marine Engineers Review

“This book would be warmly welcomed by anyone connected with the shipping industry” and “The book ought to find a place within elbow distance of all practitioners and students of maritime law.”
The Commonwealth Lawyer

“All aspects of the industry are covered in detail, in accessible language. The section on legal issues and dispute resolution will be of particular interest to lawyers, given what seems to be a global trend towards deteriorating bunker fuels.”
Maritime Advocate

“A valuable guide to the bunker industry that will promote understanding, raise awareness, increase safety levels and help protect the environment.”
Lloyd’s List

“Fisher and Lux have meticulously updated swathes of the book to reflect the list of new regulations applicable to the bunker industry in recent years, including must-read IMO and EC proposals and legislature sections on sulphur and double hulls.”



For more information, click http://www.seamanship.eu/files/pdf/eBook_FAQ.pdf" target="_blank" > Here for Frequently Asked Questions about our eBooks





List of Tables, Figures and Plates


1 A brief history of marine propulsion


2 Crude Oils, Refining and Blending of Marine Fuels

Crude oils

Paraffinic based crude oils

Naphthenic based crude oils

Asphaltic crude oils


Vacuum distillation




Catalytic cracking


Marine fuel blending

Blend components

Blend targets

Blend calculations


Flash point

Example of a complex blend calculation

The physical process of blending

Blending on board ships


3 The Market – Fuel Quality

World-wide supply market

Trends in Quality



Carbon Residue


Aluminium and Silicon

Total Sediment

Geographical variations

Port variations





Aluminium and Silicon


Commercial issues

Good fuels


4 Marine Fuel Quality Specifications and Requirements

Fuel specifications. Development history 1957-2002

General requirements

Distillate fuel grades


Carbon Residue



Aluminium and Silicon

ISO 8217:1996

Distillate fuels

Residual fuels

ISO 8217 (Expected next revision)

CIMAC 2003

Oil company fuel specifications

Environmental issues

Greenhouse gases

Good ozone

Bad ozone

Acid rain

Shipping contribution to SOx and NOx emissions

Sulphur dioxide emissions

Sulphur content of marine residual fuel – international limits

Gas scrubbers

International global sulphur cap of 1.5%

Regional sulphur restrictions

European Union

The BMT Report

The Entec Report

The Beicip-Franlap Report

European distillate fuel supplies and consumption

Nitrous Oxide (NOx) emissions

Emissions trading

Bunkers and pollution


5 Fuel Quality Characteristics and their Importance



Flash point

Pour point

Cloud point and cold filter plugging point (CFPP)

Carbon residue



Salt water contamination

Fresh water



Aluminium and silicon



Ignition Quality

Evaluation of ignition quality in distillate fuels

Residual fuels ignition quality

Specific energy

Net specific energy

Gross specific energy

Other contaminants in bunker fuels

Used lubricants in bunker fuels

Types of lubricating oils and their characteristics

Used lubricants and problems with disposal or recycling

Identification of used lubricants in marine fuels

The consumption of fuels contaminated with waste lubricants

BP/Alfa Laval study 1999

Findings on the efficiency regarding the removal of catalytic fines

Findings on the efficiency regarding the removal of iron

Findings on the efficiency regarding the removal of sea water

Ash content after purification


Chemical waste

MPA press release 20 March 2002



6 Fuel Treatment Equipment

Construction and capabilities of storage and settling tanks

Primary storage tanks

Double bottom tanks

Wing tanks

Deep tanks or cross bunker tanks

Transfer pump and settling tank

Purification plant

Traditional separators


Setting up centrifuges for optimum efficiency

Automatic sludge discharge

Purifier particle removal expectations

High density centrifuges

Service tanks

Heating for injection


Fuel additives

Economics of additives


7 Effective Fuel Management

Fuel purchasing

Selection of fuel specification – Residual fuels

Heating capacity of fuel storage tanks

Capabilities of the fuel treatment system


Tips on viscosity ordering


General tips on selection of density

Engine makers’ fuel specification and experience feedback

Environmental legislation

Selection of fuel specification – Distillate fuels

Using fuel specifications

Seeking quotations

Selection of supplier – Quality and price

Charterparty clauses

Terms and conditions of sale

Fuel delivery

Timing of delivery and delays

Pre-delivery testing

Shipboard preparations

Safety and pollution prevention

Safe transfer procedure

ASTM draft bunkering protocol 1993

Bunkering in Singapore

Quantity determination

The bunker delivery receipt

Sampling and documentation

On board testing

Pre-delivery testing

Testing during delivery

Testing during consumption

Fuel analysis

Selection of a laboratory

Using the testing service

Management of quality and quantity disputes

Quantity control

Quality disputes


8 Sampling

International and national sampling standards

Singapore Bunkering Procedure CP60: 1996

Supplier’s terms and conditions

Sampling from the delivery pipeline

Pipeline sampling devices

Manual samplers

Automatic samplers

Tank sampling


9 Laboratory Test Methods

Sample size

Outline description of test methods




BS & W

Carbon Residue

Flash point

Pour point

Cloud point




Elements by IP 501



Ignition Quality – Distillate fuels

Ignition Quality – Residual fuels

Specific energy

Visual appearance (DMX and DMA grade only)

Investigative non-routing testing

BP Method for determination of polypropylene in residual fuel by filtration and FTIR

Combustion problems – Ignition Quality

Contamination of fuels with unknown substances


Saponification number

Repeatability and reproducibility of test methods

Interpretation of test results


10 Legal Aspects of Bunkering & Dispute Resolution

Background factors

The seller’s concerns

Formation of contract

The position under US law

The position under English law

Remedies for non-payment

The terms of sale contract

The law which governs the contract and the country in which action is brought



The buyer’s concerns



BIMCO Standard Bunker Contract 2001

History of BIMCO Standard Bunker Contract 2001

The new contract

Vessel on time charter


Safety of the place where the vessel bunkers

Ownership of bunkers at end of charter period


New York Produce Exchange form

Baltime form

Shelltime 4 form

Position in the USA

Position in England


The liability regime

Insurance, financial security and direct action

Limitation of liability



Single hull vessels to be phased out

Three major amendments to the existing Regulation

Heavy grades of oil in double hull tankers

Acceleration of the phasing out scheme of single hull oil tankers

Conditional Assessment Scheme

Dispute resolution

Proper law


System of dispute resolution

Mediation (and other forms of ADR)




11 The Future

Fuel standards and specifications

The International Bunker Industry Association (IBIA)



Petrospot is a dynamic independent publishing, training and events organisation focused on the maritime, energy and transportation industries.

It delivers the highest quality strategic information in the most comprehensive and convenient formats – via magazines, websites and books, or face to face in conferences, exhibitions, seminars and training courses.

Based in Oxfordshire, England, Petrospot was established in May 2003 by Llewellyn Bankes-Hughes (Managing Director). He is supported by Lesley Bankes-Hughes (Director – Publishing), and Luci Llewellyn-Jones (Director – Events).

Title: Bunkers - An Analysis of the Practical, Technical and Legal Issues (eBook)
Number of Pages: 330
Product Code: PT1004EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-0-9548097-0-6 (9780954809706), ISBN 10: 0-9548097-0-X (095480970X)
Published Date: January 2004

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