Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse On Board Ship 4th Edition.

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June 2017


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Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse On Board Ship 4th Edition.

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These guidelines assist shipping companies and their Masters and officers to combat drug smuggling and to recognise some of the signs of drug dependence among crew members.

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Drug trafficking is undertaken by sea because of the opportunities for high volume movements, from producing to consuming countries, as traffickers attempt to penetrate the most profitable illicit markets. Once a drug consignment has entered a region, traffickers and their agents have little difficulty in moving it within that region, taking advantage of the general wish of governments to facilitate the movement of persons and goods across frontiers.

The volume of illicit drugs being moved in commercial traffic and trade continues to increase. There is no sign that illegal markets for drugs are saturated or that traffickers are encountering difficulty in identifying new or expanded sources of supply.

Unfortunately, even the massive seizures of recent years have failed to reduce the availability of drugs, any shortage of which would manifest itself as an increase in street prices. Supply has clearly not been affected to any significant extent and all the signs suggest that greater quantities of drugs are being moved, frequently by more complex and less obvious routes than in the past, and often by highly professional, organised criminal groups.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

Foreword iii

Introduction ix

Section A Understanding the Maritime Security Challenge 1

1 All Ports are Vulnerable 3

1.1 Why do you Need this Guide? 4

1.2 Strategic Response 5

1.3 Defining the Problem 6

1.4 Preparation, Protection, Prevention and Response 7

1.5 Global Drug Trafficking Routes 8

1.5.1 Key Global Routes – Flows of Heroin to/from Countries (or Regions) 8

1.5.2 Key Global Routes – Flows of Cocaine to/from Countries (or Regions) 10

1.5.3 Key Global Routes – Flows of Methamphetamine to/from Countries (or Regions) 12

1.6 Frequent Ports and Places Targeted by Drug Traffickers Looking for Ships for Drug Concealment

1.6.1 High Profile Drug Seizures – Africa 2015–2016 16

1.6.2 High Profile Drug Seizures – The Americas 2015–2016 18

1.6.3 High Profile Drug Seizures – Middle East/Asia 2015–2016 20

1.6.4 High Profile Drug Seizures – Europe 2015–2016 22

1.6.5 High Profile Drug Seizures – Oceania 2015–2016 24

1.7 Emerging and Residual Threats 26

2 The Threat to Ships 27

2.1 Vulnerabilities of Ships and Shipping 27

Section B Preparation 29

3 Risk Management 31

3.1 Security Strategy 31

3.2 The ISPS Code 32

3.2.1 Ship and Port Security Plan 32

3.2.2 Designated Roles and Certification 32

3.3 The ILO/IMO Code of Practice on Security in Ports 34

3.4 STCW 35

3.4.1 Mandatory Security Training 35

3.4.2 STCW Drug Abuse Guidelines 36

3.5 The SAFE Framework of Standards (WCO) 37

3.6 The Container Control Program (CCP) 38

3.6.1 Cocaine Trafficking in Containers (rip-on/rip-off) 38

3.7 Guidelines for Prevention and Suppression of Illicit Drugs for International Shipping 40

Section C Protection 41

4 Organisational Behaviour Leading to Enhanced Security Culture 43

4.1 Personal Protection Measures 44

4.2 Personnel Protection Measures 45

4.2.1 Personnel Control 46

4.3 Procedural Protection Measures 47

4.4 Information Protection Measures 48

5 Security Measures 49

5.1 Port Facility Physical Protection Measures 49

5.2 Port Facility Security Procedures 50

5.3 Ship Security 51

5.3.1 Role of the Ship Security Officer on a Merchant Ship with Reference to Drug

Trafficking Prevention 51

5.3.2 Potential for Drug Trafficking on Cruise Ships 52

5.4 Ship Access Control and Identification 53

5.5 External Concealment Protection Measures on Ships 54

6 Cyber Security Measures 55

6.1 Cyber Risk and Drug Trafficking in the Maritime Domain 55

6.1.1 Digital Data 55

6.1.2 Why are Cyber Attacks Initiated on Maritime Transportation Companies? 56

vi Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse On Board Ship

6.1.3 How is Cyber-enabled Piracy and Trafficking Accomplished? 56

6.2 Cyber Protection Measures 58

6.3 Social Engineering 59

6.4 Cyber Risk Management 60

6.5 Cyber-related Terminology 62

Section D Prevention 63

7 Interaction and Cooperation 65

7.1 National and International Cooperation 65

7.2 Port and Ship Cooperation 66

8 Training and Education 69

8.1 Training Needs 69

8.2 Responsibilities for Delivering Training Programmes 69

9 Penalties 73

9.1 National Penalties 73

9.2 Trafficking on the High Seas 74

Section E Response 75

10 Tactical 77

10.1 Unusual Activity at Sea 77

10.2 Unusual Activity While in Port 78

10.2.1 Incidents Involving Passengers 79

10.3 Suspicious Circumstances On Board 80

10.3.1 Incidents Involving Crew 80

10.3.2 Actions in an Emergency 81

11 Operational 83

11.1 Concealment of Drugs 83

11.2 Typical Locations where Drugs are Hidden on Ships 84

11.3 Suggested Checks for Masters and Ships’ Officers 86

11.4 Searching the Ship 87

11.4.1 Search Planning 87

11.4.2 Reactive Search 88

11.4.3 Fast Search 88

11.4.4 Preventative Search 88

11.4.5 Methods of Searching 89

11.5 Drug Seizures On Board Ship 90

11.6 Additional Considerations 92

11.6.1 Freight Vehicles and Dumb Trailers 92

11.6.2 Other Freight 92

11.6.3 Ships’ Stores 92

11.6.4 Miscellaneous Deliveries to Ships and Ports 92

12 Actions when Drugs are Found 93

12.1 Safety Considerations 93

12.2 General Guidance 93

13 What is a bona fide Packaged Chemical Cargo? 95

Section F Recognition of Drugs 97

14 Drugs and Addiction 99

14.1 Broad Classification 99

14.2 Drug Addiction 99

14.2.1 Physical Addiction 99

14.2.2 Psychological Addiction 99

14.2.3 Environmental Addiction 99

14.3 Drugs Permitted On Board 100

14.4 Indicators of Drug Abuse 100

15 Psychoactive Substances 101

15.1 Emergence of New Psychoactive Substances 101

16 Drug Characteristics and Identification 103

16.1 Cannabis 104

16.1.1 Origin 104

16.1.2 Top Producing Nations for Cannabis 104

Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse On Board Ship vii

16.1.3 Smell 104

16.1.4 Administration 104

16.1.5 Associated Equipment 105

16.1.6 Degree of Addiction 105

16.1.7 Influence and Symptoms 105

16.1.8 Quantities of Shipment 105

16.2 Opiates and Opioids 106

16.2.1 Top Producing Nations for Opium 107

16.2.2 Administration 107

16.2.3 Associated Equipment 107

16.2.4 Degree of Addiction 107

16.2.5 Influence and Symptoms 107

16.2.6 Quantities of Shipment 107

16.3 Cocaine 108

16.3.1 Origin 108

16.3.2 Top Producing Nations for Coca (Cocaine) 108

16.3.3 Administration 109

16.3.4 Associated Equipment 109

16.3.5 Degree of Addiction 109

16.3.6 Influence and Symptoms 109

16.3.7 Quantities of Shipment 109

16.4 Hallucinogens 110

16.4.1 Smell 110

16.4.2 Administration 110

16.4.3 Associated Equipment 110

16.4.4 Degree of Addiction 110

16.4.5 Influence and Symptoms 110

16.4.6 Quantities of Shipment 110

16.5 Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS) (and New Psychoactive Substances (NPS)) 111

16.5.1 Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS) 111

16.5.2 New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) 111

16.5.3 Smell 112

16.5.4 Administration 112

16.5.5 Associated Equipment 112

16.5.6 Degree of Addiction 112

16.5.7 Influence and Symptoms 112

16.5.8 Quantities of Shipment 112

16.6 Sedative Drugs 113

16.6.1 Smell 113

16.6.2 Administration 113

16.6.3 Associated Equipment 113

16.6.4 Degree of Addiction 113

16.6.5 Influence and Symptoms 113

Annex 1 Drug Seizure Statistics in Ships, Ports and at Sea 2015–2016 115

Annex 2 Training 125

Annex 3 Drug Trafficking Checklists 135

Annex 4 Customs Authority Contacts 143

References 147

Drug trafficking and drug abuse are among the greatest social evils of our time. It remains a huge criminal enterprise, involving enormous sums of money and a complex international network of often violent and highly organised cartels and gangs. These guidelines are intended to help shipping companies, Masters and Ships’ Officers to combat drug trafficking and to recognise some of the signs of possible drug use among crew members.

The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is the principal international trade association for the shipping industry, representing shipowners and operators in all sectors and trades.

ICS membership comprises national shipowners' associations in Asia, Europe and the Americas whose member shipping companies operate over 80% of the world's merchant tonnage.

Established in 1921, ICS is concerned with all technical, legal, employment affairs and policy issues that may affect international shipping.

ICS represents shipowners with the various intergovernmental regulatory bodies that impact on shipping, including the
International Maritime Organization

ICS also develops best practices and guidance, including a wide range of
publications and free resources that are used by ship operators globally.

Title: Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse On Board Ship 4th Edition.
Subtitle: Guidelines for Owners and Masters on Preparation, Prevention and Response
Edition: Fourth
Number of Pages: 148
Product Code: WS1544K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-739-0 (9781856097390), ISBN 10: 1-85609-739-0 (1856097390)
Published Date: June 2017
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 300 mm
Book Width: 220 mm
Book Spine: 14 mm
Weight: 0.85 kg
Author: MARISEC

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