Fresh Air in Dark Places - SKULD Edition (eBook)

Published Date

January 2012


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Fresh Air in Dark Places - SKULD Edition (eBook)

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This is an essential book for anyone involved in or responsible for entry of spaces on board that are confined, enclosed, dangerous or otherwise, whether for inspection, cleaning or maintenance.

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The authors, Olaf and Erik Olsen, first considered this book after reading yet another account of an enclosed space tragedy resulting in the death of merchant seafarers. Despite the fact that the merchant marine world has been provided with guidance, regulation and codes to prevent such accidents, they still continue to happen.

 

Rather than producing yet another set of best practices, it is hoped that the informative style of this book explains the hazards associated with the activity of entering confined spaces.

Authors’ Introduction

Foreword

Introduction

The Death Toll must be Cut

1 A Straightforward Approach

1.1 Systematic Approach to Safety

1.2 What is ‘Fresh Air’?

1.3 Weight of Air and Different Gases – an Introduction to Molecular Mass

1.3.1 Methane

1.3.2 Vapours Lighter than Methane

1.4 The Hazard of Invisible Gases

1.5 Temperature and Pressure Variation

2 What is so Special about Fresh Air?

2.1 Oxygen

2.2 Spaces with less than 20.9% Oxygen

2.3 The Human Need for Oxygen

2.4 Nitrogen

2.5 Carbon Dioxide

3 The Adrenalin Rush and Feeling Superhuman

4 Carbon Monoxide – A Nasty and Sinister Gas

4.1 Threshold Limit Value (TLV)

5 A Most Unpleasant Smell

6 The Hydrocarbons

6.1 Flammability of Hydrocarbons

6.2 More Waxy and Viscous Fluids

6.3 Hydrocarbon Vapours and Flammable Limits

6.4 The Chemical Industry and Alkanes

6.5 Benzene

6.6 CFCs

6.7 Ammonia

6.8 Release of Gases from Residues on Chemical Tankers

7 So Far, So Good, So What?

8 The Real World

8.1 Hazard Identification

8.2 Risk Assessment

8.3 Checklists

8.4 Signed Entry Permit

8.5 Correctly Monitor and Record

9 Tables of Toxicity

9.1 Source of Data

9.2 TLV, TWA and STEL

9.3 OEL, MEL, WEL and DNEL

10 The Nose is not Enough

10.1 Introduction to Explosimeters

10.2 Introduction to the Oxygen Analyser

10.3 Introduction to the Tankscope

10.4 Tubes and Multi-Channel Gas Detectors

10.5 Testing and Calibration of Instruments

10.6 Summary of the Various Gas Measuring
Instruments

10.7 Flammable Range Diagram

11 Closing Summary

11.1 Key Points when Preparing to Evaluate the
Atmosphere in a Compartment

11.2 Evaluating the Atmosphere of Secondary

Locations

Bibliography

 

Title: Fresh Air in Dark Places - SKULD Edition (eBook)
Number of Pages: 134
Product Code: WS1272EA
Published Date: January 2012
Author: Olaf Olsen

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