Guidelines for the Alleviation of Excessive Surge Pressures on ESD (eBook)

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Published Date

July 1987

Guidelines for the Alleviation of Excessive Surge Pressures on ESD (eBook)

$38.63
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A practical guide for operators, designers and engineers of both liquefied gas ship and terminal loading and unloading systems, by enabling them to recognise the potential hazard of surge pressure.

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Part A Some Design Considerations and Operational Guidelines

1. Potential Surge Pressure Hazards

2. Guidelines Common to Ship and Terminal

2.1 Guidelines Prepared by an Industry Working Group Convened by the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS)

2.2 Safe Transfer Rates

2.3 Valve Characteristics/Closure Times

2.4 Pipeline Design Pressure and Pipeline Anchors

2.5 Linked Ship and Terminal Shut-Down Signal Systems

2.6 Operational Factors

3. Additional Guidelines for Consideration by the Terminal

4. Additional Guidelines for Consideration by the Ship

 

Part B The Theory of Surge Pressure and its Alleviation

5. Surge Pressure Theory

5.1 The Joukowski Equation

5.2 Line Pack Effects

5.3 Secondary Surges

5.4 Surge Assessments

5.5 The Calculation of Wavespeed

6. Surge Pressures in a Typical Loading System

6.1 Description of "basic" System Studies

6.2 Effect of Independent Ship ESD

6.3 Alleviation Equipment

7. Surge Pressures in a Typical Unloading System

8. Effects of Variation of Parameters

8.1 Flow Rates

8.2 Valves

8.3 Line Lengths

8.4 Pipe Diameters

8.5 Fluid Properties

8.6 Dead Legs

8.7 Gas Eliminators

8.8 Pumps

9. Design Approach to Alleviate Surge Pressures

9.1 Pump Shut Down/Diversion of Flow

9.2 Surge Pressure Relief

10. References

 

List of Figures

1. Typical Development of Surge Pressure after a Rapid Valve Close

2. Improvement in Safe Loading Rate if Flow Rate is Controlled at the Pump Discharge and not at the end of the Jetty or on the Ship

3. Start of Surge Pressure on Closure of ESD Valve Closure

4. Full Surge Pressure Following ESD Valve Closure

5. LPG Tanker Loading System

6. The Reduction of Flow with Time on Valve Closure

 

List of Graphs

A. Butane Loading - Flow Reduction at Jetty Head on ESD

B. Butane/Ammonia - Variation of Pressure at Jetty Head on ESD Loading

C. Butane Loading - Variation of Maximum Pressure with Pumped Flow Rate

D. Butane Loading - Variation of Maximum Pressure with Total Valve Closure Time

E. Butane Loading - Variation of Maximum Pressure with ESD Valve Size

F. Valve Closure - Variation of Effective Valve Closure Time Characteristics with Number of ESD Valves Closing in Parallel

G. Butane Loading - Variation of Maximum Pressure with Line Length

H. Butane Loading - Variation of Maximum Pressure with Pump Trip Delay

J. Butane Loading - Reduction in Flow at Jetty Head with Pump Trip

K. Butane Loading - Variation of Pressure on ESD with Pump Trip

L. Butane Unloading - Variation of Maximum Pressure with Pump Trip Delay

M. Butane Unloading - Variation of Pressure at Jetty Head On ESD with no Pump Trip

N. Butane Unloading - Variation of Pressure at Jetty Head on ESD with Pump Trip

The purpose of SIGTTO is to promote shipping and terminal operations for liquefied gases which are safe, environmentally responsible and reliable. To fulfil this mission it will:

  • Proactively develop best operating practices and guideline

  • Sustain a learning environment by sharing lessons learned

  • Promote training and development of all within the industry

  • Foster mutually beneficial relationships with regulatory authorities and other stakeholders

  • Conduct its business with professionalism and integrity

Title: Guidelines for the Alleviation of Excessive Surge Pressures on ESD (eBook)
Number of Pages: 34
Product Code: WS1187EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-0-948691-40-9 (9780948691409), ISBN 10: 0-948691-40-9 (0948691409)
Published Date: July 1987

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