Hatch Covers: Operation, Testing and Maintenance - SKULD Edition

Published Date

January 2008

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Hatch Covers: Operation, Testing and Maintenance - SKULD Edition

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This book provides a definitive study of hatch cover testing and maintenance.

SKULD MEMBERS. Enter the promotional code SKULDSPEC to receive 20% off this title.To receive 10% off all other Witherby Seamanship books enter the code SKULD10 to receive your 10% discount off your total basket.

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During the publication process, this publication was reviewed by a number of experts and interested parties, including the SKULD P&I Club, who provided access to their archives to obtain a number of case studies, and past and current Masters of bulk carriers. The Macgregor Group kindly provided up-to-date design and equipment graphics.



The Author



1 Why Hatch Covers are Fitted to Ships

2 Background to the Design of Hatch Covers

3 Ship Construction to Accommodate Hatch Covers

4 Different Designs for Different Cargoes

4.1 Bulk Cargoes

4.2 Containers

4.3 General Cargoes

4.4 Refrigerated Cargoes

4.5 Timber Cargoes

4.6 Other Cargoes

5 Hatch Cover Types

5.1 Pontoon and Tarpaulin Covers

5.2 Direct Pull Covers

5.3 Folding Covers

5.4 Roll Stowing Covers

5.5 Side and Rolling Covers

5.6 Life and Roll Covers (Piggy-back)

5.7 Sliding Tween-deck Covers

5.8 Pontoon Covers

5.9 Reefer Vessels

5.10 Other Sealing Systems

5.11 Other Hatch Cover Designs

5.12 Other Cleating Methods

6 The Differences Between Watertightness and Weathertightness

6.1 Ram-nek Tape and Foam

7 Care and Maintenance of Hatch Covers

8 Reasons for Hatch Cover Testing by Various Organisations and the Role of the Marine Surveyor in these Tests

8.1 National-based Survey Organisations

8.2 Classification Societies

8.3 Independent Surveyors

8.4 Insurance Surveyors

8.5 Cargo Surveyors

8.6 On/Off Hire Surveys

8.7 Pre-purchase Condition Surveys

9 The Various Hatch Cover Testing Methods

9.1 Chalk Test

9.2 Light Test

9.3 Hose Test

9.4 Air Test

9.5 Putty or Moulding Clay Test

10 The Use of Ultrasound Testing Equipment, Principles and Operation of the varied Equipment Available on the Market

10.1 What is Ultrasound?

10.2 Advantages of Ultrasound

10.3 The Equipment

10.4 Miscellaneous

10.5 Comparison of the Equipment

10.6 Hatch Cover Testing Protocols and Procedures

11 Client Approval of Ultrasound Testing Equipment and Operators

11.1 Client Approval

12 Common Defects Found when Hatch Cover Testing

13 Repairs to Hatch Covers


Case Studies

Case Study 1: Hatch covers leaking in gale force winds

Case Study 2: Leaking hatch covers – damaged steel coils cargo

Case Study 4: Port of refuge required

Case Study 5: Oil leakage from the hatch hydraulic system on to the cargo

Case Study 6: Water damage due to leaking hatch covers

Case Study 7: Alleged wet damage to frozen krill

Case Study 8: Water damage to fishmeal cargo

Case Study 9: Steel cargo damage – ship sweat and sea water

Case Study 10: Water-soaked cargo



Appendix 1: Resolution MSC.169(79) Standards for Owners ‘Inspection and Maintenance of Bulk Carrier Hatch covers

Appendix 2: Table Showing Comparison of Ultrasound Equipment



Mike Wall joined Cunard Line as a marine engineer apprentice at the age of seventeen, eventually reaching the rank of Chief Engineer with service aboard many different types of vessel.

During his career Mike obtained a Class 1 marine engineer’s certificate of competency, a Bachelor of Science in Maritime Studies and Master of Science degree in Shipping and Maritime Studies. Experience was gained in most areas of shipping with eight years as a lecturer in Maritime Studies, culminating in five years as Senior Lecturer as Warsash College of Maritime Studies, UK.

Twenty years experience was gained in hull, machinery, cargo and condition surveys in the USA, New Zealand, Fiji and South East Asia. Most of this was as Managing Director and Principle Consultant for Kiwi Marine Consultants Ltd, Hong Kong, for P&I Clubs, Shipowners, Shipmanagers, Underwriters, Admiralty Lawyers and other Principles. Mike is also a qualified Mediator, registered both in the UK and Hong Kong.

Mike is a regular contributor of shipping technical articles to various maritime publications and is currently editor of FLASHLIGHT, the free emailed monthly newsletter distributed to marine surveyors around the world. Mike also organizes the annual ‘Asian Marine Insurance and Surveying Forum’.


Skuld offers Protection and Indemnity (P&I) for shipowners, liability covers for charterers, defence insurance as well as offshore cover. Additional marine and energy covers are provided through Skuld 1897, a Syndicate at Lloyd’s. www.skuld.com

Title: Hatch Covers: Operation, Testing and Maintenance - SKULD Edition
Number of Pages: 178
Product Code: 4376
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-344-6 (9781856093446), ISBN 10: 1-85609-344-1 (1856093441)
Published Date: January 2008
Weight: 0.60 kg
Author: Michael Ronald Wall

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