IMPA on Pilotage

Published Date

May 2014


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IMPA on Pilotage

$93.86
(Excludes any applicable taxes)

This publication, compiled by the International Maritime Pilots’ Association, brings together the experience and expertise of over 30 pilots and industry experts to produce a fascinating insight into the role of the marine pilot. This 256-page book, illustrated throughout with colour photographs and diagrams, will be of benefit and guidance to pilots, both current and future, as well as to shipmasters and seafarers.

 

It starts with a brief history of marine pilotage, followed by an overview of the legislation governing pilotage and pilot liability.  It then looks in detail at the practical aspects of pilotage, such as the master/pilot exchange, pilot transfer, shiphandling, vessel characteristics and interaction, fatigue management, and training and certification.  It also discusses pilotage in different locations, including canals, straits, rivers and deep sea.

 

 

Acknowledgements

Foreword

Introduction

A Brief History of Pilotage

 

1 Legal and Statutory

1.1 International Maritime Organization (IMO)

1.2 National Instruments

1.3 Liability and Criminalisation

1.4 Immunity and Exemptions

 

2 Conducting Pilotage

2.1 Planning – Pilot’s Passage Plan

2.2 Master/Pilot Exchange (MPX)

2.3 Communications and SMNV

2.4 Underkeel Clearance (UKC)

2.5 Winter Pilotage

2.6a Canal Pilotage – Panama Canal

2.6b Canal Pilotage – Kiel Canal

2.7 River Pilotage

2.8 Deep Sea Pilotage

2.9 Straits Pilotage

 

3 Ship Handling

3.1 Propulsion, Steering and Power

3.2 Ship Blackouts; Shaft Generators and Controllable Pitch Propellers

3.3 Navigation Technology and Equipment

3.4 High Sided Vessels

3.5 Azimuthing Control Devices

3.6 Squat

3.7 Interaction

3.8 Tug Use

3.9 Sailing Vessels

3.10 Handling Unusual Vessels

3.11 Warships

3.12 Fast Craft

 

4 Requirements, Training and Certification

4.1 Overview

4.2a Entry Routes to the Profession – France

4.2b Entry Routes to the Profession – USA

4.3 Continuous Professional Development

4.4 Mentoring Training

4.5 Use of Simulators

4.6 Scaled Manned Models

4.7 Bridge Resource Management for Pilots

 

5 Human Element - Fatigue

5.1 Fatigue Management

 

6 Transfers

6.1 Ladder Safety

6.2a Pilot Boat Evolution

6.2b Pilot Vessel Types

6.3 Helicopter Use

 

7 IMPA Strategy

 

Appendices

Appendix 1 – IMPA’s Position on Competition in Pilotage

Appendix 2 – IMPA Guidance to Members on ECDIS

Appendix 3 – IMPA Position Statement on the Implementation of the IMO’s E-navigation Strategy

Appendix 4 – Guidelines on the Design and Use of Portable Pilot Units

Title: IMPA on Pilotage
Number of Pages: 256
Product Code: WS1413K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-635-5 (9781856096355), ISBN 10: 1-85609-635-1 (1856096351)
Published Date: May 2014
Weight: 1.00 kg

Customer Reviews

IMPA on Pilotage Review by Professional Mariner
On long dark nights, when wheelhouse talk on the tugs or ships turns to plans for the future, the subject of pilots often comes up. It is not just the good pay that attracts the tug captain on a 30-day rotation. The thought of being home, if not every day then a great deal more often than the regular mariner’s life allows, carries some real attractions. At the same time, most workboat captains understand all too well the challenges of working a tug or other offshore vessel in close to the beach, which is, of course, routine for a pilot.

For all those aspiring pilots, as well as other mariners who are interested in the challenges of piloting, there is now a book that tells it all. “IMPA on Pilotage” was put together by the International Maritime Pilots’ Association and published by Witherby Seamanship International of Edinburgh, Scotland. Each of the book’s chapters is written by pilots from various ports with specific expertise on the subject. The authors are all involved in Pilotage in Europe and North America, including those passages that separate Europe from Asia, and North from South America.
A growing concern for pilots as well as masters has been the increased criminalisation of responsibility in the event of maritime accidents. In the first chapter, Paul G Kirchner, executive director and general counsel of the American Pilots’ Association, contributes a detailed review of the contemporary situation in the US. His general position is that criminal law is inappropriate when applied to vessel casualties as “it encourages those in the maritime industry to point fingers, engage in ‘spin’, (and) play the blame game …. In this respect, criminalisation of maritime casualties is a primary contributor to the ‘blame culture’ that currently plagues the maritime industry” while harming the goal of preventing casualties.

Chapter 2, on conducting pilotage, includes sections written by both Panama and Kiel canal pilots as well as articles on the pilot’s passage plan, master-pilot exchange, standard marine navigational vocabulary and separate sections covering each of winter, river, deep-sea and straits pilotage. Capt. Bernard Cayer of the Lower St Lawrence Pilots contributes a piece on under-keel clearance and the dynamics of “squat”. This latter topic is revisited in more specific detail in later chapters.
The third chapter examines some of the varied technology encountered by pilots in their work. In the course of a week’s work, a pilot may go from guiding a warship to a sailing vessel or even a self-propelled semi-submersible. The Livingstone brothers – Grant of the Long Beach port’s pilots and George of the San Francisco pilots – team up to write the sections on warships and unusual vessels. Capt. Michael A. Morris contributes a section titled “Interaction” in which he describes his work in the Houston Ship Canal, where the “Texas 3-Step” is employed when vessels meet and pass each other with as little as 100 feet of separation. This chapter includes a well-informed discussion on tug use by Captain Henk Hensen, with excellent illustrations of various propulsion and ship handling approaches.

For obvious reasons, required pilotage skills can vary markedly with the geographical variations from port to port. The route to joining a pilotage can also vary. Chapter 4 covers aspects of requirements, training and certificate. Clayton “Clay” Diamond, who has a Coast Guard background and is currently deputy director and associate general counsel of the American Pilots’ Association, presents a section on entry to US pilotages. This chapter covers topics such as continuous professional development, mentor training, use of simulators and manned models. The final section in this chapter is co-authored by Capt. Jorge. J Viso of the Tampa Bay pilots and details the history and importance of bridge resource management for pilots.

Fatigue management is given its own chapter and is presented by the Australian Capt. Peter Dann. A fatigue risk trajectory is illustrated to show how early attention, noting symptoms and maintaining data can prevent incidents.

Chapter 6 deals with the exciting and dangerous aspects of pilotage: transfers. The whole of this book is lavishly illustrated, but this chapter – with sections on pilot boat evolution and pilot vessel types – is particularly rewarding. The final section of the chapter, by Capt. Gary Lewin of the Columbia Bar Pilots, includes dramatic images and, more importantly, a detailed description of the care and planning behind the acceptance of helicopter use by the bar pilots. It indicates the cooperative nature of decision-making in most pilot groups. For shipping companies that may object to the cost of helicopters, Lewin writes, “The ability to be flexible at the boarding location (when using helicopters) allows the ships to maintain speed and enter the navigational channel from different course angles. This saves time and fuel for the ship, in our situation, we can generally save enough fuel during the inbound and outbound transfers to more than pay for the helicopter operation.”

“IMPA on Pilotage” is filled with many such nuggets of information that will answer the questions of potential and practicing pilots. George Livingstone said recently that there are about 50,000 vessels of over 10,000 gross tons worldwide, and these will have approximately 100,000 captains. Most of these ships will require a pilot at each end of their voyage. In the coming years, as the baby boom bubble passes through the ranks of 6,000 to 7,000 North American pilots, there will be a steady demand for new people. For those contemplating the move, as well as for those in the pilotage, this book offers great insights to the profession.
(Posted on 23/02/2015)
IMPA on Pilotage Review by Flash Winter 2014
There are few books on the subject of maritime pilotage and only one example comes to mind with this reviewer, that published by the Nautical Institute on pilotage and ship handling in 1990. There are references in other publications to pilotage such as in the IALA Aids to Navigation Manual.

In addition, the important matter of pilot ladder safety is addressed. Also considered are pilot cutter evolution and the types of pilot vessels available today. Furthermore, the use of helicopters to ship and land pilots is well described. This volume provides useful background for those who need to know about one of the many maritime safety facets of the vast shipping business.

There is a valuable series of appendices in this book and in one IMPA’s position on competition is outlined. Guidance is given to its members on the use of ECDIS and there is a reflection on IMO’s e-Navigation strategy.

The expertise of over thirty pilots and industry experts has helped to produce a splendid insight into the role of the maritime pilot. Furthermore, guidelines are provided on the design and use of portable pilot units which are seen more and more on the bridges of the world’s tonnage.

IMPA has done a splendid job in bringing to the fore the work of the pilot with this exemplary book.
(Posted on 12/12/2014)
IMPA on Pilotage Review by IAIN Website - December 2014
The International Maritime Pilots’ Association (IMPA: www.impahq.org) based in HQS Wellington on London’s Victoria Embankment reports that it has issued in hardback form the above title. Running to 234 pages (ISBN: 978 1 85609 635 5) this handsome volume has a cover price of £75.00. The publisher is Witherby Seamanship International of Edinburgh (www.witherbyseamanship.com).

There are few books on the subject of maritime pilotage and only one example comes to mind with this reviewer, that published by the Nautical Institute on pilotage and ship handling in 1990. There are references in other publications to pilotage such as in the IALA Aids to Navigation Manual.

In addition, the important matter of pilot ladder safety is addressed. Also considered are pilot cutter evolution and the types of pilot vessels available today. Furthermore, the use of helicopters to ship and land pilots is well described. This volume provides useful background for those who need to know about one of the many maritime safety facets of the vast shipping business.

There is a valuable series of appendices in this book and in one IMPA’s position on competition is outlined. Guidance is given to its members on the use of ECDIS and there is a reflection on IMO’s e-Navigation strategy.

The expertise of over thirty pilots and industry experts has helped to produce a splendid insight into the role of the maritime pilot. Furthermore, guidelines are provided on the design and use of portable pilot units which are seen more and more on the bridges of the world’s tonnage.

IMPA has done a splendid job in bringing to the fore the work of the pilot with this exemplary book.
(Posted on 12/12/2014)
Pilotage Issues Addressed Review by Tanker Operator
The International Maritime Pilots’ Association (IMPA) has put together a guide for pilots, Masters and Seafarers.*

Pilots sometime come under fire when casualty reports are analysed. Incidents of Collisions, groundings, etc, are still being recorded worldwide, despite the presence of a pilot on board in some cases.

Over 30 pilots and industry experts contributed to the guide, which commences with a brief history of marine pilotage, followed by an overview of the legislation governing pilotage and more importantly, pilot liability.

The practical aspects of pilotage are examined in detail, including Master/pilot exchange, pilot transfer, shiphandling, vessel characteristics and interaction, fatigue management and training and certification.

In the legal and statutory section, IMO and national instruments, liability and criminalisation, pilot immunity and exemptions are discussed.

The section on conducting pilotage contains a pilot’s passage plan, Master pilot exchange, communications and underkeel clearance, including ship squat.

This section also looks at pilotage in different locations, such as canals (Panama and Kiel), straits, rivers and deepsea, plus the problems that can be encountered during severe winter periods, such as found on the St Lawrence River.

Shiphandling merits its own section in the book, covering various aspects including propulsion, steerage and power, vessel blackouts, shaft generators, CP propellers navigational technology and equipment, high sided vessels, azimuthing controlling devices, tug use and the handling of speciality vessels.

Perhaps of equal importance is the section on requirements, training and certification. This starts with an overview, followed by requirements needed in France and the US, continuing professional development, mentoring training, simulator training, scaled manned model training and bridge resource management for pilots, which training academies have said is of increasing importance.

Fatigue is covered as pilots can sometimes be expected to work for long hours, as is the question of pilot transfer systems, including ladders, pilot boats, pilot vessels and helicopters.

In the Appendix, IMPA gives its stance on pilotage competition and this section also includes a guide for members on the use of ECDIS, plus IMPA’s position statement of the IMO’s E-navigation strategy.

Finally, IMPA’s guidelines on the design and use of portable pilot units are outlined.

By and large each section and its relevant chapters are written by different IMPA members who have particular expertise in the subject being covered, although there is a certain amount of overlap.

*IMPA on Pilotage is published by Witherby Publishing Group, price £75, pp 256, 4-colour diagrams, ISBN: 978-1-85609-635-5.
(Posted on 18/08/2014)
Everything you ever needed to know about marine pilots and pilotage Review by Telegraph - Nautilus Institute, August 2014
Accident investigation reports frequently underline the importance of the relationship between pilots and the crews of the ships they assist. But when there is often just a matter of minutes in which to establish that relationship, it can be a huge challenge.

The result of contributions from more than 30 pilots and industry experts around the world, this new book should certainly help in bridging the gap by raising awareness and understanding of the work undertaken by pilots and the diverse demands they face – from boarding a ship to handling the vast variety of different vessels visiting their ports.

Compiled by the International Maritime Pilots’ Association, it describes the long history of pilotage – dating back some 4,000 years – and explains the national and international regulatory regimes governing pilotage services, as well as the issues of liability, immunity and criminalisation

The book covers different types of pilotage - including deepsea, canals, rivers and winter services – and looks at challenges such as blackouts, squat and interaction. For those considering a career shift, there is a lot of useful information on training and certification requirements.

The 256 pages are well illustrated with good colour photos and diagrams, and there is a wealth of handy references from anyone wanting to find out more about certain issues. Despite the multiple authors, the book hangs together well and it provides a clear and coherent insight into the vital work varied out by pilots and it deserves a wide readership.
(Posted on 11/08/2014)
Pilot on board Review by IHS Fairplay Review August 2014
Once comfortable, the brief expert comment from the International Maritime Pilots’ Association begins: “The pilot may have to tactfully articulate to the master that he is ready, in all aspects, to conn the vessel. The key is respecting the master’s unique experience and making an effort to nurture the relationship between pilot and master.”

IMPA on Pilotage is an unusual book in that, although its subject is specific, it covers so much that would benefit a much wider readership. Understanding the role of the marine pilot is a good way for non-seagoing readers to come face to face with the key issues affecting officers on the bridge and controlling the engine room.

By way of contributed articles from pilots in ports, rivers, and canals of all continents, this book discusses the particular challenges of pilotage in congested waters, in the high Arctic, and aboard sailing vessels, fast craft, and warships.

But this isn’t really about pilotage, it’s about safety – and the sound of safety is silence, as countless ships are brought safely and without fuss to and from ports.

Given that, it is perhaps ironic that the most dangerous part of the job is getting to work. No procedure on gaining access to a ship has been successfully devised other than the traditional pilot ladder or helicopter.

Climbing the ladder is tolerable in calm seas and a light wind, but it becomes an intolerably high-risk operation when complicated by weather, the condition of the ladder itself, and unsafe rigging of the ladder.

Pilots continue to be killed or injured as a result of accidents embarking or disembarking from ships. So it is a challenging comment that ship’s masters and ship owners/operators should acknowledge and support the assertion that at times the level of risk is unacceptable, and pilots should not attempt to embark or disembark.

That decision has commercial consequences, but an incident involving a pilot ladder can lead to risk for the ship, port access, port infrastructure, and other ships in the vicinity.

This book begins by establishing legal and statutory requirements and unpacks the role of the pilot, before focusing on handling varied ships and situations, there is a useful section on training, certification and, crucially for high-risk operation expected to be constant readiness, fatigue management.

Its strength is in its balanced tone, stating the dangers of poor practice without exaggeration, yet making the necessary point that the safety of the venture lies in co-ordinating the skills and expertise of a pilot with those of the master and his bridge team, working with the resources available to him both on board and ashore.

Alongside the comment quoted above, another acts as a testimony of the work of the pilot: “One very pleasing aspect is the high number of masters who request the services of the same pilot on subsequent voyages, this is the best indication possible of a job well done.”
(Posted on 11/08/2014)
The Experts Guide to Pilotage Review by Lloyd's List
Lloyd’s List Review
Saturday 28 June 2014, 11:00
By Michael Grey

The experts’ guide to pilotage.

The Bosporous Strait, Panama Canal and other waters make different demands on pilots.

Veterans offer valuable insights and guidance on a profession that faces many hazards.

ONE of the problems of 21st century maritime life has been the attempt to reduce virtually every operational function to a set of procedures.

It is a characteristic of our risk-averse society, which cannot tolerate the thought that there might be certain things done on board ship that might rely more upon immeasurable phenomena such as seamanship or judgement.

Procedures and regulations are regarded as essential for the subsequent inquiry and trial, should matters go wrong in the wild, dynamic environment afloat, when, with the perfect judgement of hindsight, those responsible can be suitably judged.

One area that tends to defy all attempts to boil it down to a set of standard procedures is the handling of ships in confined pilotage waters.

Sure, there are now earnest requirements about berth-to-berth passage planning, and the suitable information exchange between master and pilot when the latter boards.

There is all manner of guidance about the bridge team — and how often is this a lone exhausted and preoccupied shipmaster? — not mentally switching off with a pilot on board and doing useful things such as parallel indexing around the bends and constantly checking what is going on.

Pilotage, says Geoff Taylor in his foreword to the International Maritime Pilots’ Association new book IMPA on Pilotage, is about “highly skilled individuals using their judgement, experience and good seamanship to bring vessels through the dangers that can be found in pilotage waters”.

Capt Taylor is a former IMPA president and was a Tees pilot for more than 30 years. He knows what he is writing about. I have watched him at work.
But how can the business of pilotage, which is different in every port in the world, on account of its geography, topography, hydrography, meteorology and doubtless several other ologies that have so far eluded me, be confined between the hardbacked covers of a single volume?

You can’t learn to be a pilot from a book, can you?

Of course, pilots do learn on the job, assisted these days by wonderful training aids such as manned models and simulators.

However, there is a great deal that they do need to know that is specific to their specialist calling and this excellent volume will fill many of the gaps that might otherwise require some hard searching elsewhere.

Experts’ chapters

It is a book that acknowledges the spectrum of differences between pilotage operations, calling on a large number of practical experts from around the world to write chapters and sections appropriate to their skills.

Thus the singular business of pilotage in straits is described by two experts from the Bosphorous Strait, a Panama Canal pilot writes on this unique waterway, where responsibility for safe navigation is taken by the pilot,and two London pilots and trainers cover simulator training.

The information throughout the book comes, as it were, from the horse’s mouth. It is not secondhand wisdom.

The book begins, perhaps appropriately in this litigious age, with legal and statutory matters, placing pilotage within the context of the International Maritime Organization, national instruments, where the pilots stand in their somewhat exposed position on issues of criminalisation and liability, and what immunity and exemptions might offer them some relief.

You hear a great deal of tripe about casualties in pilotage waters, chiefly from people who have never been on a ship’s bridge in any operational role, who make idiotic statements about “most accidents occurring with a pilot on board”.

This fails to acknowledge the huge numbers of casualties there would be without the intervention of this specialist during a transit through the riskiest part of a voyage.

It tends to be the same people who think competition between pilots would improve matters and that Pilotage Exemption Certificates should be offered to the ship’s cook. But I digress.
There are extensive chapters on the conduct of pilotage, from the routine to the special circumstances of winter pilotage, deepsea operations, canals and straits.

There is a comprehensive section on ship handling, taking in propulsion, steering and power and emergencies such as blackouts, handling high-sided vessels, the use of azimuthing control devices and phenomena such as squat and interaction.

There is good advice on the use of tugs, handling warships, sailing vessels and fast craft.

Would-be pilots will be interested in the section on requirements, training and certification, with various routes into the profession and the importance of continuous professional development, mentoring and simulators.

Bridge-resource management for pilots is described, showing how important it is that the pilot is integrated into the ship’s team at this important part of the voyage.
Fatigue and its management are given a special section, important in what is a stressful, round-the-clock profession.

There is an important section on the business of pilot transfer and ladder safety, which has been an issue over all my working life.

Pilots are still killed and injured in what remains a hazardous evolution, particularly in open roadsteads or marginal weather conditions.

The book goes on to describe the use of pilot boats and helicopters.

The final section of the book provides IMPA policies,with the organisation’s views on competition, the use of electronic charts, E-navigation and guidelines on design and use of portable pilot units, covered in separate appendices.

The book recognises the pilot’s role in a fast-changing world in which, as Geoff Taylor notes, the pilot must be “ever mindful of the need to look out of the bridge window while adopting and adapting marine technologies to their skill set”.

IMPA on Pilotage is published by Witherby Publishing Group, www.witherbys.com, price £75 ($127.70). (Posted on 03/07/2014)

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