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International shipping is increasingly the subject of public scrutiny, accountable for how it manages its operations particularly in the light of some recent high-profile maritime casualties. In response to public concern, in 1998 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a new approach to managing safety when the new Chapter IX of SOLAS, Management for the Safe Operation of Ships, and the accompanying International Safety Management (ISM) Code came into force. In keeping with its non-prescriptive ethos, the ISM Code sets out the requirement for shipping companies to have in place a safety management system, but it does not stipulate the method for achieving satisfactory safety performance.
INTERTANKO’s Human Element in Shipping Committee is responsible for promoting and disseminating best practice in the management of people and safety in the tanker industry. As part of the work of the Committee, from time to time initiatives and practices are reviewed and best practice disseminated. This publication was initiated under the outgoing Chair of the Committee, John Adams. The new Chair, Tommy Olofsen, has made publication of such guidance a priority for the Committee.
1.2 Structure of the Publication
2. Terminology and Concepts
2.1 Safety Management Systems
2.2 High Reliability Organisations
2.3 Safety Culture and Safety Climate
2.4 Safety Maturity
3. Measuring Safety Performance
3.1 Safety Outcomes
3.2 Quality Management
4. Safety Management Initiatives
4.1 Safety Climate Surveys
4.2 Behavioural-based Safety Management
4.3 Crew Resource Management Training
4.4 Post-Incident Reviews
4.5 Safety Incentive Schemes
4.6 Leading Indicators of Safety