An Introduction to Bunker Operations (eBook)

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Published Date

May 2010

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An Introduction to Bunker Operations (eBook)

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This publication is essential reading for anyone involved in bunker operations, whether ashore or at sea. It covers topics such as plugging flange, storage, measuring, delivery, sampling, handing and debunkering. The book is crammed with photographs, charts and diagrams intended to help the reader visualise important aspects of bunker operations, from flanges, hoses and samplers, to barges, pipelines, road tankers and storage tanks.

This book is the third in a series of informative books by Nigel Draffin, following An Introduction to Bunkering (2008) and An Introduction to Fuel Analysis (2009), both of which have become staple reading material at all levels of the industry.



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About the author



Chapter 1 - Early days

Steam and coal

Coal sellers and chandlers

The change to oil

Bunker stations and delivery methods

Posted prices

Chapter 2 - How to bunker

Where, when and how much?

Essential information

A typical delivery


Chapter 3 - Safety

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

IBIA safety card

Flammable gas

Protective clothing

Gas monitors

Direct skin contact

Physical risks


Chapter 4 - The agent

The agent and the port

The agent and the deliverer

The agent with the vessel, Customs and surveyors


Chapter 5 - The ship

Bunker tank arrangement

Oil tanker

Container vessel

Car carrier / passenger vessel

Reefer / general cargo vessel


Bunker loading manifold

Bunker hoses

Bunker line connections

Patent couplings

Vessel dimensions

Will the car fit in the garage?

Free side

Access on board

The fuel transfer system

Preparations for bunkering

Staffing levels


Chapter 6 - Shore terminals

Terminal pumps and pipelines

Blending at terminals


Chapter 7 - Pipeline deliveries

Terminal flow booms and hose gantries

Dry cargo wharf hydrant systems

Pipeline delivery restrictions

Emergency shut down systems

Pipeline grade segregation


Chapter 8 - Road tanker deliveries

Loading road tankers

Transport restrictions and measurement issues



Chapter 9 - Barge deliveries

Barge types

Dumb barges

River / inland barges

Coastal type barges

Barge tanks and pipelines

Barge pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Barge operation

Bunker-only calls



Moorings and fenders

Safe access

Barge problems


Pump back costs

Down grading costs

Free time and demurrage

Offshore bunkering

Coastal offshore bunkering

Deepsea offshore bunkering

Mooring ropes


Chapter 10 - Measurement


Calibration tables and trim corrections

Measurement method

Volume correction factor table (VCF)

Weight correction factor table (WCF)

Example calculations

Opening gauges

Closing gauges

Product loaded

Measurement tools

Steel tape

Float gauges

Capacitance gauges

Hydrostatic gauges

Ultrasonic gauges

Radar gauges

Flow meters

Volumetric flow meters

Turbine flow meters

Mass flow meters

Weigh bridge

Measurement errors

Temperature errors

Unit confusion

Wedge formulae

Oil in pipelines


Chapter 11 - Sampling the product

Reason for sampling

Sample location

Shore tank

Loading terminal

Barge manifold

Ship manifold

Ship transfer pump suction

Ship tank

Sampling methods

Spot sample

Composite sample

Drip sample

Automatic samplers

Taking the sample

Sampling problems

Handling samples

MARPOL samples

Fuel analysis service samples


Chapter 12 - Documentation and regulation



ETA notice

Master’s requisition

Check lists

Checks prior to transfer

Ullage report

Sample receipt

Bunker delivery receipt (BDR)

Letters of protest

Tax exemption certificates











Chapter 13 - Procedures

ISM for vessels

Barge vetting

Singapore Standard SS600

ISO 13739

Gibraltar Code of Practice for Bunkering

Washington State Procedures for Safe Bunkering


Chapter 14 - Surveyors

Bunker quantity survey




Bunker quality survey

Machinery damage survey


Chapter 15 - Debunkering

Why debunker?




Time taken

Salvage pumps






Chapter 16 - Pollution prevention


Non-persistent oil

Persistent oil


Precautions by design

Precautions during operations

Pollution response

Cleaning up

Oil boom



Chapter 17 - The future



Product availability


Appendix I – Where to go for help

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)




Petrospot is a dynamic independent publishing, training and events organisation focused on the maritime, energy and transportation industries.

It delivers the highest quality strategic information in the most comprehensive and convenient formats – via magazines, websites and books, or face to face in conferences, exhibitions, seminars and training courses.

Based in Oxfordshire, England, Petrospot was established in May 2003 by Llewellyn Bankes-Hughes (Managing Director). He is supported by Lesley Bankes-Hughes (Director – Publishing), and Luci Llewellyn-Jones (Director – Events).

Title: An Introduction to Bunker Operations (eBook)
Number of Pages: 141
Product Code: PT1000EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-0-9548097-4-4 (9780954809744), ISBN 10: 0-9548097-4-2 (0954809742)
Published Date: May 2010

Customer Reviews

good and concise Review by nawal kapur
very informative (Posted on 25/02/2011)

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