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February 1999

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Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals 3rd Ed

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Aimed at ship and shore operations staff responsible for the cargo handling operations of a full range of liquefied gases, including LNG, LPG and the chemical gases.


No. OF PAGES: 276

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This book is for serving officers and terminal operational staff who are responsible for cargo handling operations and personnel about to be placed in positions covering these duties. Consideration is given to a full range of liquefied gases including LNG, LPG and the chemical gases.


This third edition looks at Liquefied Gas Handling Principles as the standard text for the industry's operational side, and proves indispensable for those employed in the industry as well as those training for operational qualifications.



1.1 Liquefied gases

1.2 Liquefied gas production

1.2.1 LNG production

1.2.2 LPG production

1.2.3 Production of chemical gases

1.2.4 The principal products

1.3 Types of gas carriers

1.4 The ship/shore interface and jetty standards

1.4.1 Safe jetty designs

1.4.2 Jetty operations


2.1 Chemical structure of gases

2.2 Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

2.3 The chemical gases

2.4 Chemical properties

2.5 Inert gas and nitrogen

2.6 Polymerisation

2.7 Hydrate formation

2.8 Lubrication

2.9 Physical properties

2.10 States of matter

2.10.1 Solids, liquids and gases

2.10.2 Spillage of liquefied gas

2.11 Principles of refrigeration

2.12 Critical temperatures and pressures

2.13 Liquid/vapour volume relationships

2.14 Ideal gas laws

2.15 Saturated vapour pressure

2.16 Liquid and vapour densities

2.16.1 Liquid density

2.16.2 Vapour density

2.17 Physical properties of gas mixtures

2.18 Bubble points and dew points for mixtures

2.19 Reliquefaction and enthalpy

2.19.1 Enthalpy

2.19.2 Refrigeration

2.20 Flammability

2.21 Suppression of flammability by inert gas

2.22 Sources of ignition


3.1 Design standards and ship types

3.1.1 The gas carrier codes

3.2 Cargo containment systems

3.2.1 Independent tanks

3.2.2 Membrane tanks

3.2.3 Semi-membrane tanks

3.2.4 Integral tanks

3.2.5 Internal insulation tanks

3.3 Materials of construction and insulation

3.3.1 Construction materials

3.3.2 Tank insulation

3.4 Gas carrier types

3.4.1 Fully pressurised ships

3.4.2 Semi-pressurised ships

3.4.3 Ethylene ships

3.4.4 Fully refrigerated ships

3.4.5 LNG ships

3.5 Gas carrier layout

3.6 Survival capability

3.7 Surveys and certifiäation

3.7.1 Certificate of fitness

3.7.2 Other certification


4.1 Cargo pipelines and valves

4.1.1 Cargo pipelines

4.1.2 Cargo valves and strainers

4.1.3 Emergency shut-down (ESD) systems

4.1.4 Relief valves for cargo tanks and pipelines

4.2 Cargo pumps

4.3 Cargo heaters

4.4 Cargo vaporisers

4.5 Reliquefaction plants and boil-off control

4.5.1 Indirect cycles

4.5.2 Direct cycles

4.6 Cargo compressors and associated equipment

4.6.1 Reciprocating compressors

4.6.2 Screw compressors

4.6.3 Compressor suction liquid separator

4.6.4 Purge gas condenser

4.6.5 LNG boil-off and vapour-handling systems

4.7 Inert gas and nitrogen systems

4.7.1 Inert gas generators

4.7.2 Nitrogen production on ships

4.7.3 Pure nitrogen from the shore

4.8 Electrical equipment in gas dangerous spaces

4.9 Instrumentation

4.9.1 Liquid level instrumentation

4.9.2 Level alarm and automatic shut-down systems

4.9.3 Pressure and temperature monitoring

4.9.4 Gas detection systems

4.9.5 LNG custody transfer systems

4.9.6 Integrated systems

4.9.7 Calibration


5.1 Cargo transfer systems

5.1.1 Hoses

5.1.2 Hard arms (loading arms)

5.1.3 Vapour return

5.1.4 Insulating flanges

5.2 Shore storage

5.2.1 Pressurised storage at ambient temperature

5.2.2 Storage in semi-pressurised spheres

5.2.3 Refrigerated storage at atmospheric pressure

5.2.4 Construction materials and design

5.3 Ancillary equipment

5.3.1 Pressure relief venting

5.3.2 Pipelines and valves

5.3.3 Pumps, compressors and heat exchangers

5.4 Instrumentation

5.4.1 Product metering

5.4.2 Pressure, temperature and level instrumentation

5.4.3 Gas detection systems

5.5 Fire-fighting

5.5.1 Water

5.5.2 Foam

5.5.3 Dry chemical powders

5.5.4 Carbon dioxide (C02) systems

5.5.5 Halon replacements

5.5.6 Inspection, maintenance and training


6.1 Supervision arid control

6.2 Design considerations

6.2.1 The terminal

6.2.2 The ship

6.3 Communications

6.3.1 Prior to charter

6.3.2 Prior to arrival

6.3.3 Alongside the jetty

6.4 Discussions prior to cargo transfer

6.5 Ship/Shore safety check list

6.6 Operational considerations

6.61 Berthing and mooring

6.6.2 Connection and disconnection of cargo hoses and hard arms

6.6.3 Cargo tank atmospheres

6.6.4 Cargo handling procedures

6.6.5 Cargo surveyors

6.6.6 Gangways and ship security

6.6.7 Bunkering

6.6.8 Work permits

6.7 Fire-fighting and safety

6.8 Linked Emergency shut-down systems

6.9 Terminal booklet — In formation and Regulation

6.10 Training


7.1 Sequence of operations

7.2 Tank inspection, drying and inerting

7.2.1 Tank inspection

7.2.2 Drying

7.2.3 Inerting — before loading

7.3 Gassing-up

7.3.1 Gassing-up at sea using liquid from deck storage tanks

7.3.2 Gassing-up alongside

7.4 Cool-down

7.5 Loading

7.5.1 Loading — preliminary procedures

7.5.2 Control of vapours during loading

7.5.3 Loading — early stages

7.5.4 Bulk loading

7.5.5 Cargo tank loading limits

7.6 The loaded voyage

7.6.1 Operation of the reliquefaction plant

7.6.2 LNG boil-off as fuel

7.7 Discharging

7.7.1 Discharge by pressurising the vapour space

7.7.2 Discharge by pumps

7.7.3 Discharge via booster pump and cargo heater

7.7.4 Draining tanks and pipelines

7.8 The ballast voyage

7.9 Changing cargo (and preparation for drydock)

7.9.1 Removal of remaining liquid

7.9.2 Warming-up

7.9.3 Inerting — after discharge

7.9.4 Aerating

7.9.5 Ammonia — special procedures

7.10 Ship-to-ship transfer

7.11 Conclusion


8.1 Principles for liquefied gases

8.1.1 Special practices for gas cargoes

8.1.2 General. Density in air and Density in Vacuum

8.1.3 True density (apparent density)

8.1.4 Relative density (specific gravity)

8.1.5 Apparent relative density (apparent specific gravity)

8.1.6 LNG quantification

8.1.7 Shore measurement versus ship measurement

8.2 Measurement of cargo tank volumes

8.2.1 Trim correction

8.2.2 List correction

8.2.3 Tape correction

8.2.4 Float correction

8.2.5 Tank shell contraction and expansion

8.3 Measurement of density

8.3.1 Density measurement methods

8.3.2 Units of density

8.4 Ship/shore calculation procedures

8.4.1 Outline of weight-in-air calculation

8.4.2 Procedures using standard temperature

8.4.3 Procedure using dynamic flow measurement

8.5 Example — cargo calculation

8.6 Other calculation procedures and measurement units

8.7 Cargo documentation


9.1 Cargo hazards

9.2 Flammability

9.2.1 Operational aspects

9.2.2 Emergency aspects

9.3 Air deficiency

9.3.1 Toxicity

9.3.2 Asphyxia (suffocation)

9.3.3 Medical treatment

9.3.4 Oxygen therapy

9.4 Frostbite

9.5 Chemical burns

9.6 Transport to hospital

9.7 Hazardous atmospheres

9.7.1 The need for gas testing

9.7.2 Oxygen analysers

9.7.3 Combustible gas indicators

9.7.4 Toxicity detectors

9.8 Entry into enclosed spaces

9.8.1 Precautions for tank entry

9.8.2 Procedures

9.8.3 Rescue from enclosed spaces

9.9 Personal protection

9.9.1 Breathing apparatus

9.9.2 Protective clothing


10.1 The principal hazards

10.1.1 Flammability

10.1.2 Vaporisation of spilled liquid

10.1.3 Toxicity and toxic products of combustion

10.1.4 Frostbite

10 1 5 Brittle fracture

10.2 Liquefied gas fires

10.2.1 Fire detection

10.2.2 Jet fires

10.2.3 Liquid (pool) fires

10.2.4 Fires in compressor rooms

10.3 Liquefied gas fire-fighting

10.3.1 Alarm procedures

10.3.2 Extinguishing mediums

10.3.3 Training

10.4 Emergency procedures

10.4.1 The emergency plan

10.4.2 Ship emergency procedures

10.4.3 Terminal emergency procedures

10.5 Emergency release and emergency shut-down

10.5.1 Emergency shut-down (ESD) — ship/shore links

10.5.2 Emergency release systems (ERS)

10.6 Removal of ship from berth

10.7 Ship-to-ship cargo transfer

APPENDIX 1 References

APPENDIX 2 Liquefied and Chemical Gases Covered by the IGC Code

APPENDIX 3 Ship/Shore Safety Check List


Figures and Tables

Inside front and back covers — LPG and LNG carriers (to scale)

Figure No. Title

1.1 Constituents of natural gas

1.2 Typical flow diagram for LNG liquefaction

1.3 Typical oil/gas flow diagram

1.4 Typical flow diagram — production of chemical gas

2.1 Molecular structure of some saturated hydrocarbons

2.2 Molecular structure of some unsaturated hydrocarbons

2.3 Molecular structure of some chemical gases

2.4 Solubility of water in butadiene

2.5 The polymerisation of vinyl chloride

2.5(a) Inhibitor information form

2.6 Temperature/heat diagram for varying states of matter

2.7 Characteristics of methane

2.8 Simple refrigeration — evaporation/condensation cycle

2.9(a) Boyle’s Law for gases (constant temperature)

2.9(b) Charles’ Law for gases (constant pressure)

2.9(c) Pressure Law for gases (constant volume)

2.10 Relationship between adiabatic and isothermal compression

2.11 Barometric method for measuring saturated vapour pressure

2.12 Characteristics of propane

2.13 Pressure/temperature relationship for hydrocarbon gases

2.14 Pressure/temperature relationship for chemical gases

2.15 Equilibrium diagram for propane/butane mixtures

2.16 Mollier diagram for propane

2.17 Flammable range for propane

2.18 Flammable vapour zones — a liquefied gas spill

2.19 Flammable limits of gas mixtures in air and nitrogen

3.1 Prismatic self-supporting Type ‘A’ tank — fully refrigerated LPG carrier

3.2(a) Self-supporting spherical Type ‘B’ tank

3.2(b) Self-supporting prismatic Type ‘B’ tank

3.3 Type ‘C’ tanks — fully pressurised gas carrier

3.4 Type ‘C’ tanks — semi-pressurised gas carrier with bi-lobe tanks

3.5(a) Gaz Transport membrane containment system — larger LNG carriers

3.5(b) Construction c5f the Gaz Transport membrane system

3.6(a) Technigaz membrane containment system — larger LNG carriers

3.6(b) Construction of the Technigaz membrane — Mark lii

3.7 Compressor room/electric motor room on a gas carrier

4.1 Cargo tank dome piping arrangement — Type ‘C’ tank

4.2 Pilot-operated relief valve

4.3 Pump performance curves — a deepwell pump

4.4 Centrifugal pumps in parallel — combined characteristics

Figure No. Title

4.5 Centrifugal pumps in series — combined characteristics

4.6 Typical deepwell pump

4.7(a) Submerged motor pump for LPG

4.7(b) Typical LNG submerged motor pump assembly

4.6 Vertical booster pump

4.9 Horizontal booster pump

4.10 Cargo heater

4.10(a) Examples of indirect cooling cycles

4.11(a) Single-stage direct reliquefaction cycle

4.11(b) Mollier diagram — single-stage direct reliquefaction cycle

4.12(a) Two-stage direct reliquefactiôTh cycle with inter-stage cooling

4.12(b) Mollier diagram — two-stage direct reliquefaction cycle

4.13 Simplified cascade reliquefaction cycle

4.14 Sulzer oil-free compressor

4.15 Linde oil-tree compressor

4.16 Typical rotor for an oil-free screw compressor

4.17 Typical purge gas condenser system

4.18 Flow diagram of an inert gas generator

4.19 Saturated water content of inert gas

4.20 Drying of inert gas

4.21 The membrane system for producing nitrogen

4.22 Intrinsic safety using Zener barriers

4.23 Float level gauge

4.24 Nitrogen bubbler level gauge

4.25 Differential pressure level gauge

4.26 Electrical capacitance level gauge

5.1 Typical gas carrier loading arm

5.2 Loading arm operating envelope

5.3 Quick connect/disconnect coupling

5.4 Powered emergency release coupling (PERC)

5.5 Roots blower typically used for vapour return

5.6 LPG loading terminal — vapour return using a shore based blower

5.7 Fully pressurised storage in horizontal cylindrical tanks

5.8 Rock cavern LPG storage

5.9 Salt cavern LPG storage

5.10 Semi-pressurised storage in spheres

5.11 Typical single-wall tank — LPG storage

5.12 LNG tank — concrete bund

5.13 LNG tank — double-wall

5.14 Double containment steel tank for LPG

5.15 LPG tank — earth berm

5.16 In-ground tank for LNG

5.17 Bursting disc for surge pressure relief

5.18 Flow diagram for reliquefaction within an LPG terminal

5.19 LNG receiving terminal — vaporiser/sendout

5.20 A positive displacement meter

5.21 A turbine meter

5.22 A prover loop

7.1 Air drying — operational cycle

7.2 Inerting cargo tanks by the displacement method

7.3(a) Gassing-up cargo tanks using liquid from shore

7.3(b) Gassing-up cargo tanks using vapour from shore

7.4 Cargo tank cool-down using liquid from shore

7.5 Loading with vapour return

7.6 Loading without vapour return

7.7 Cargo refrigeration at sea

Figure No. Title

7.8 Combined chip and shore pumping characteristics — single pump

7.9 Illustratton of static head and friction head

7.10 Combined anp arid shore pumping characteristics parallel pumps

7.11 Dchare without vapour return

7.12 Discharge with vapour return

7.13 Pipeline diagram of a cargo booster pump and heater

7.14 Removal of cargo liquid residue by pressurisation

7.15 Inerting of cargo tanks

7.16 Aeration of cargo tanks

8.1 Cargo calculations — correction for trim

8.2 Cargo calculations — correction for list

9.1 Patient label

9.2(a) Oxygen indicator — circuit diagram

9.2(b) Oxygen indicator — plan view

9.2(c) A polarographic cell

9.3(a) Combustible gas indicator — circuit diagram

9.3(b) Combustible gas indicator — calibration graph

9.4 Infrared gas analyser

9.5 Toxic gas indicator

9.6 Maritime safety card with safety check list

10.1 Pool fire configurations

Table No. Title

1.1 Physical properties of some liquefied gases

2.1 Synonyms for the main liquefied gases

2.2 Chemical properties of liquefied gases

2.3(a) Chemical compatibilities of liquefied gases

2.3(b) Previous cargo compatibilities of liquefied gases

2 4 Inert gas compositions

2.4(a) Factors affecting lubrication

2.5 Physical properties of gases

2.6 Conversion factors for units of pressure

2.7 Calculation for molecular mass of a gas mixture

2.8 Ignition properties for liquefied gases

2.9 Flammability range in air and oxygen for some liquefied gases

3.1 Typical insulation materials

8.1 ASTM 56 (short table)

9.1 Health data — cargo vapour

9.1(a) Health data — cargo inhibitors

9.2 Additional health data — cargo liquid

9 3 Liquefied gas groups — for medical first aid purposes

9.4 Enclosed spaces on gas carriers

Title: Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals 3rd Ed
Edition: Third Edition
Number of Pages: 276
Product Code: 4400W038
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-164-0 (9781856091640), ISBN 10: 1-85609-164-3 (1856091643)
Published Date: February 1999
Binding Format: Hardback
Weight: 1.30 kg
Author: SIGTTO

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