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September 2000


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Liquefied Gases: Marine Transportation and Storage

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This book provides a thorough overview of the transportation of liquefied gases by sea, covering the ships and the rules and regulations in force.

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This book briefly reviews the history of the marine transportation of liquefied gases and discusses in detail the conditions that prevail today. It provides an overview of all aspects of the industry, including the characteristics of the ships, safety and reliability, the rules and regulations in force and details of storage tanks on shore.

 

Author: Vaudolon, Alain.

Published: 2000

No Pages: 178

ISBN: 9781856091978

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2 - THE PRODUCTS

2.1 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) – ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS

2.2 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) – ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS

2.3 LIQUEFIED PETROCHEMICAL GASES

2.3.1 GENERAL

2.3.2 AMMONIA

2.3.3 BUTADIENE

2.3.4 PROPYLENE

2.3.5 VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER

2.3.6 ETHYLENE

CHAPTER 3 - HISTORY

3.1 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)

3.1.1 THE BEGINNING

3.1.2 DEVELOPMENT

3.1.3 LIQUEFIED

3.1.4 ETHYLENE

3.2 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)

3.2.1 THE BEGINNING

3.2.2 DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER 4 - THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

4.1 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES AND PETROCHEMICAL GASES

4.1.1 THE FLEET

4.1.2 THE TRADE

a) GENERAL

b) LIQUEFIED

c) AMMONIA

d) PETROCHEMICAL GASES

i) ETHYLENE

ii) PROPYLENE

iii) BUTADIENE

iv) VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER (VCM)

4.1.3 THE TERMINALS

4.1.4 COMMERCIAL TITLES

4.2 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG)

4.2.1 THE FLEET

4.2.2 THE TRADE

4.2.3 THE TERMINALS

4.2.4 COMMERCIAL TITLES

CHAPTER 5 - VARIOUS TYPES OF LIQUEFIED GAS TANKERS

5.1 GENERAL – THE IMO CODE DEFINITIONS

5.2 FULLY PRESSURISED SHIPS

5.3 SEMI-PRESSURISED SHIPS

5.4 FULLY REFRIGERATED SHIPS

5.5 INSULATED SHIPS FOR LNG

5.5.1 SPHERICAL TANKS

5.5.2 MEMBRANE TANKS

5.5.3 SELF-SUPPORTING, PRISMATIC TYPE B (SPB) TANKS

CHAPTER 6 - OTHER CHARACTERISTICS SPECIFIC TO LIQUEFIED GAS TANKERS

6.1 GENERAL

6.2 RULES AND REGULATIONS

6.2.1 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

6.2.2 OPERATION AND CREWING

6.3 CARGO EQUIPMENT

6.3.1 PIPES AND VALVES

6.3.2 RELIQUEFACTION PLANTS

6.3.3 PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS

6.3.4 CARGO QUANTITY MEASUREMENT-CUSTODY TRANSFER

6.3.5 INERT GAS AND NITROGEN

6.4 SAFETY EQUIPMENT

6.4.1 EMERGENCY SHUT-DOWN SYSTEMS (ESDS)

6.4.2 OTHER SAFETY EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER 7 - PORTS, TERMINALS AND JETTIES

7.1 REDUCING THE LEVEL OF RISK

7.2 LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

7.3 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

CHAPTER 8 - CHORE STORAGE TANKS

8.1 GENERAL

8.2 STORAGE UNDER PRESSURE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

8.2.1 SPHERICAL AND HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANKS ABOVE GROUND

8.2.2 MOUNDED HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANKS

8.2.3 UNDERGROUND CAVERNS

8.3 STORAGE IN SEMI-PRESSURISED SPHERES

8.4 STORAGE AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IN REFRIGERATED CONDITION

8.4.1 DIFFERENT TYPES OF REFRIGERATED STORAGE TANKS

a) ABOVE-GROUND TANKS

b) IN-GROUND TANKS

c) IN-PIT OR SEMI-BURIED TANKS

8.4.2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

a) SINGLE CONTAINMENT

b) DOUBLE CONTAINMENT

c) FULL CONTAINMENT

d) MEMBRANE TANKS

8.4.3 STANDARD FOR LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE TANKS

8.4.4 MATERIALS USED FOR LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE TANKS

8.5 EVOLUTION OF THE SIZE OF SHORE TANKS

8.6 SOME POSSIBLE INCIDENTS IN LIQUEFIED GAS SHORE STORAGE

8.6.1 ROLLOVER

8.6.2 FIRE HAZARD

8.6.3 BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOUR EXPLOSION (BLEVE)

CHAPTER 9 - OPERATIONS

9.1 SHIP OPERATIONS

9.1.1 GENERAL

9.1.2 CARGO OPERATIONS

a) PREPARATION FOR LOADING

b) LOADING

c) LOADED VOYAGE

d) DISCHARGING

e) BALLAST VOYAGE

f) CHANGING CARGO OR PREPARATION FOR DRY DOCKING

g) CHANGING CARGO AFTER AMMONIA

9.2 PORT OPERATIONS

9.2.1 GENERAL

9.2.2 EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION BETWEEN SHIP, PORT AND TERMINAL

9.2.3 SHIP’S ARRIVAL AND TRANSIT TO THE BERTH

9.2.4 SHIP ALONGSIDE THE BERTH

9.2.5 SAFETY AND CONTINGENCY

CHAPTER 10- SHIP TO SHIP TRANSFER

10.1 LPG AND LIQUEFIED PETROCHEMICAL GASES

10.2 LNG

CHAPTER 11- SAFETY OF LIQUEFIED GAS MARINE TRANSPORTATION

11.1 SAFETY RECORD

11.2 HAZARDS AND RISKS

11.2.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2.2 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

11.2.3 CONSEQUENCES OF CERTAIN TYPES OF ACCIDENT

11.2.4 FREQUENCY OF ACCIDENT SCENARIOS

a) GENERAL

b) FREQUENCY OF SHIP INCIDENTS

c) FREQUENCY OF TERMINAL INCIDENTS

d) OTHER HAZARDS

e) IGNITION OF RELEASES

11.2.5 RISK ASSESSMENT

CHAPTER 12- SOME STORIES

12.1 ACCIDENTS INVOLVING LNG AND LPG TANKERS

12.1.1 THE CLEVELAND, OHIO LNG TANK FAILURE – OCTOBER 1944

12.1.2 FEYZIN REFINERY AND STORAGE FACILITIES – FRANCE 1966

12.1.3 LPG STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION CENTRE IN MEXICO CITY – NOVEMBER 1984

12.2 TWO ACCIDENTS INVOLVING LNG TANKERS

12.2.1 THE EL PASO PAUL KAISER – JULY 1979

12.2.2 LNG TAURUS – 1979

12.3 ACCIDENTS INVOLVING LNG TANKERS

12.3.1 THE YUYO MARU COLLISION – NOVEMBER 1974

12.3.2 THE GAS FOUNTAIN – IRAQ/IRAN WAR – OCTOBER 1984

12.4 SOME OTHER INCIDENTS FROM MY OWN RECORDS

12.4.1 A BAD NIGHT IN ZVETINA – LIBYA

12.4.2 A FEW QUIET DAYS OFF THE MEXICO WEST COAST

12.4.3 AN EXAMPLE OF BRITTLE FRACTURE!

12.4.4 A CALL TO BEIRUT, LEBANON, IN MARCH 1976, TO DISCHARGE A PART-CARGO OF LPG

12.4.5 AN ATTEMPT AT JETTISONING LNG

CONCLUSION

INDEX

Title: Liquefied Gases: Marine Transportation and Storage
Number of Pages: 178
Product Code: 4400W039
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-197-8 (9781856091978), ISBN 10: 1-85609-197-X (185609197X)
Published Date: September 2000
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 300 mm
Book Width: 210 mm
Book Spine: 10 mm
Weight: 1.00 kg
Author: Alain Vaudolon

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