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Published Date

November 2011


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LNG Shipping Knowledge 2nd Edition

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This book provides the actual underpinning knowledge for the SIGTTO LNG Shipping Competency Standards that summarise the tasks and knowledge considered necessary to perform in the industry, broken down by rank. This information is either not available within the public domain or unsatisfactorily verified and credited. Technical expertise has been sought from many and varied sources, ensuring that there is no equipment or company bias within.

 

PUBLISHED DATE: NOVEMBER 2011
No. OF PAGES: 464 

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The shipment of LNG has grown steadily since 1958 when the first ship to carry LNG, the ‘Methane Pioneer’, carried 5,000 m3 of LNG from the USA to the UK. By mid 2006 the world fleet of LNG Carriers had grown to over 200 ships in service. By early 2009 this figure was over 300 and during 2011 the number of LNG Carriers operating worldwide will exceed 400.

LNG Shipping possesses the most envied safety record in world shipping, with no significant accident or cargo spillage in its first 40 years spanning more than 40,000 sea voyages. However, with a lack of training berths on the existing tonnage and new operations evolving in countries with no LNG experience the industry must work hard to retain that position.


The introduction of a system of internationally recognised and structured training programs was necessary and, in November 2005, SIGTTO went a long way to fulfilling that requirement by releasing the 1st version of its LNG Shipping Competency Standards to provide guidance and suggested best practice for the industry. These standards were reviewed and accepted by an IMO sub-committee in the spring of 2006 and published by SIGTTO shortly afterwards with a 2nd edition being published in December 2008.

The LNG Shipping Competency Standards summarized the tasks and knowledge considered necessary to perform in the industry, broken down by rank. ‘LNG Shipping Knowledge’, closely follows that format, providing the actual underpinning knowledge that is asked for in each instance.

This makes it a powerful set of supporting documents to the ‘LNG Shipping Competency Standards’, providing and filling in information that is either not available within the public domain or that is available but unsatisfactorily verified and credited.During the course of the construction of this publication, technical expertise has been sought from many and varied sources, ensuring that there is no equipment or company bias within. 

Acknowledgements

Introduction.

1 Fundamental Knowledge and Understanding .

1.1 Physics and Chemistry .

1.1.1 Have an Awareness of the Physics Relating to the Change of State of Fluids .

1.1.2 Know and Understand the `Gas Laws' and how they are Applicable to LNG Operations

1.1.3 Know and Understand the Physics Relating to the Change of State of the Various Components Involved in Relation to LNG

1.1.4 Know and Understand the Principles Involved in the Changing of Tank Atmospheres .

1.1.5 Have an Awareness of the Parameters for Inert Gas

1.1.6 The Meaning of `Dew Point'.

1.1.7 Know and Understand the Principles Used During the Tank Cool-Down Process

1.2 Principles of Design

1.2.1 Have an Awareness of Main Design Principles .

1.2.2 Know and Understand the Main Design Principles .

1.3 Regulations and Guidance .

1.3.1 Have an Awareness of the Applicable Regulations .

1.3.2 Know the Relevant Regulatory Requirements for Containment System and Cargo Related Operations .

1.3.3 Have an Awareness of Industry and Organisational Guidance Publications Available

1.3.4 Have an Awareness of Industry Sources of Guidance and Advice

1.4 Principles of Tank Atmospheres .

1.4.1 Know the Definitions Relating to Tank Atmospheres .

1.5 Properties of Materials

1.5.1 Have an Awareness of the Materials that are Used in the Construction of LNG Carriers and their Properties that Make them Suitable for Use .

1.5.2 Know and Understand the Materials that are Used in the Construction of LNG Carriers .

1.6 Hazards of LNG and Relevant Gases

1.6.1 Have an Awareness of the Hazards to Personnel and the Ship from LNG and Relevant Gases

1.6.2 Know and Understand the Hazards to Personnel and the Ship from LNG and Relevant Gases and the Defences Applied .

1.6.3 Know the First Aid Action to be Taken in the Event of Personnel Contact with LNG

1.6.4 Have an Awareness of LNG Fire-Fighting Techniques and Equipment.

1.6.5 Know and Understand LNG Fire-Fighting Techniques and Equipment .

1.7 Environmental Impact .

1.7.1 Have an Awareness of the Potential Environmental Impact of LNG Operations .

1.7.2 Know and Understand the Potential Environmental Impact of LNG Operations .

1.8 Risk Assessment

1.8.1 Have an Awareness of the Requirement to Carry Out Risk Assessments

1.8.2 Know and Understand the Process to Carry Out Risk Assessments of Planned Operations .

1.9 Individual Responsibilities
1.9.1 Have an Awareness of Own Responsibilities

1.9.2 Know and Understand Own and Others Individual Responsibilities

1.10 Contingency Plans

1.10.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Principles.

1.10.2 Know and Understand the Contingency Planning Process .

1.11 Record Keeping

1.11.1 Have an Awareness of the Requirements .

1.11.2 Know and Understand the Requirements for Record Keeping

1.12 Planning

1.12.1 Know and Understand the Stages of the Planning Process

2 Equipment .

2.1 Cargo System ­ Tank Construction

2.1.1 Have an Awareness of the Moss Type

2.1.2 Know and Understand the Moss Type.

2.1.3 Have an Awareness of the Membrane Type

2.1.4 Know and Understand the Membrane Type

2.1.5 Have an Awareness of the SPB (Self-supporting, Prismatic Shape, IMO Type-B) Type .

2.1.6 Have an Awareness of the Differences Between Moss, Membrane and SPB Types .

2.2 Air and Inert Gas Driers

2.2.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.2.2 Know and Understand their Operating Parameters and Limitations .

2.2.3 Know and Understand Likely Problems.

2.2.4 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.3 Inert Gas Generator

2.3.1 Have an Awareness of its Purpose and Operating Principles .

2.3.2 Know and Understand their Operating Parameters and Limitations .

2.3.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.3.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.4 Nitrogen Systems .

2.4.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose, the Different Types and their Operating Principles

2.4.2 Know and Understand Nitrogen Generator Operating Principles and Parameters, the Outlet Requirements and Limitations

2.4.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.4.4 Know and Understand Bulk Liquid Nitrogen Storage Systems .

2.4.5 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.5 LNG Vaporiser

2.5.1 Have an Awareness of its Purpose and Operating Principles .

2.5.2 Know and Understand its Principles, Operating Parameters, the Outlet Requirements and Limitations .

2.5.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.5.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.6 High Duty Compressor(s) .

2.6.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.6.2 Know and Understand Design Features

2.6.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.6.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.7 Low Duty Compressor(s)

2.7.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.7.2 Know and Understand Design Features

2.7.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.7.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and the Resulting Actions .

2.8 Gas Heaters .

2.8.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.8.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters, the Outlet Requirements and Limitations .

2.8.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.8.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.9 Forcing Vaporiser .

2.9.1 Have an Awareness of its Purpose and Operating Principles .

2.9.2 Know and Understand its Principles, Operating Parameters, the Outlet Requirements and Limitations .

2.9.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.9.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.10 Cargo Pumps

2.10.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.10.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

2.10.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.10.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.10.5 Know and Understand the Starting System.

2.10.6 Know and Understand the Pump Motors and Cabling

2.11 Spray Pumps

2.11.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.11.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

2.11.3 Know and Understand Operational Requirements and Procedures

2.11.4 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

2.11.5 Know and Understand the Starting System.  

2.11.6 Know and Understand the Pump Motors and Cabling

2.12 Cargo Tank Protection Devices

2.12.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.12.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

2.12.3 Know and Understand the Problems that can Occur with Cargo Tank Relief Valves

2.13 Cargo Line Protection Devices .

2.13.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.13.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

2.13.3 Know and Understand the Problems that can Occur with Cargo Line Relief Valves

2.14 Cargo Space Protection Devices

2.14.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.14.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

2.14.3 Know and Understand the Problems that can Occur with Cargo Space Relief Valves

2.15 Cargo Liquid and Vapour Valves

2.15.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.15.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

2.15.3 Know and Understand the Problems that can Occur with Cargo Liquid and Vapour Valves

2.16 Cargo Tank Protection System .

2.16.1 Have an Awareness of the Principles of Operation .

2.16.2 Know and Understand the Maintenance Requirements

2.17 Reliquefaction Plant

2.17.1 Have an Awareness of their Purpose and Operating Principles

2.18 Gas Combustion Unit (Oxidiser) .

2.18.1 Have an Awareness of its Purpose and Operating Principles .

2.19 Regasification Plant

2.19.1 Have an Awareness of its Purpose and Operating Principles .

2.20 Cargo Related Spaces .

2.20.1 Have an Awareness of the types of Cargo Related Spaces

2.20.2 Know and Understand the Requirements for the Operation and Maintenance of Cargo Related Spaces Support Systems

3.1 Nitrogen Pressurisation and Purge.

3.1.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose and Operating Principles

3.1.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

3.1.3 Know and Understand the Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

3.2 Cofferdam Heating System

3.2.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose and Operating Principles

3.2.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

3.2.3 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

3.3 Fixed Gas Detection .

3.3.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose and Operating Principles

3.3.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Parameters and Limitations

3.3.3 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

3.3.4 Know and Understand the Maintenance and Testing Requirements.

3.4 Portable Gas Detection Equipment

3.4.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose, Use and Operating Principles .

3.4.2 Know and Understand the Purpose, Principles, Operating Parameters,Application, Calibration and Limitations.

3.4.3 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

3.5 Emergency Shut-down System

3.5.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose and Operating Principles

3.5.2 Know and Understand the Principles and Methods of Operation and Methods of Connection Between Ship and Shore and Differing Requirements for Each

3.5.3 Know and Understand the Connection Procedures

3.5.4 Know and Understand the Operating Parameters that will Activate ESD

3.5.5 Know and Understand the Effect of ESD Operation

3.5.6 Know and Understand the Tests, Maintenance and Procedures.

3.5.7 Know and Understand Principles and Types .

3.6 Emergency Mooring Release .

3.6.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose and Operating Principles

3.7 Water Curtain .

3.7.1 Know and Understand the Purpose and Principles of Operation of the Water Curtain .

3.8 Drenching System

3.8.1 Know the Application and Purpose of the Drenching System

3.8.2 Know and Understand the Purpose and Principles of Operation of the Drenching System .

3.9 Fixed Dry Powder Installations .

3.9.1 Know the Operation and Application of the Fixed Dry Powder Fire Fighting System.

3.9.2 Know and Understand the Maintenance and Testing of the Fixed Dry Powder Installation

3.10 Level Gauging Systems

3.10.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose and Operating Principles

3.10.2 Know and Understand their Principles, Operating Requirements, Likely Problems and Maintenance Procedures .

3.11 Custody Transfer System (CTS).

3.11.1 Have an Awareness of the Purpose and Operating Principles

3.11.2 Know and Understand their Purpose, Principles, Types, Operating Requirements, Procedures and Application

3.11.3 Know and Understand the Principles

3.12 Certified Safe Electrical Equipment

3.12.1 Know the Areas where Electrical Equipment is Required to be of a Certified Safe Type

3.12.2 Know and Understand the Operation and Maintenance of Intrinsically Safe Systems (Ex I) .

3.12.3 Know and Understand the Operation and Maintenance of Flameproof Equipment (Ex d)

3.12.4 Know and Understand the Operation and Maintenance of Pressurised Equipment (Ex p)

3.13 High Voltage Systems

3.13.1 Know that the Operation and Maintenance of High Voltage Systems and Equipment is Subject to Specific Control Procedures .

3.13.2 Know and Understand the Operation and Maintenance of Switchgear and Transformers

3.13.3 Know and Understand the Maintenance and Testing of Generators and Motors

3.14 Integrated Automation System (IAS)

3.14.1 Have an Awareness of the Operating Principles .

3.14.2 Know and Understand the Operating Principles and Maintenance Requirements

3.15 Turbo Alternator Control Systems

3.15.1 Know and Understand the Principles of Operation

3.16 Propulsion Types

3.16.1 Have an Awareness of the Principal Types of Main Propulsion Machinery .

3.16.2 Know and Understand the Principal Features and Operating Parameters

3.17 Gas Combustion Systems

3.17.1 Have an Awareness of System Types .

3.17.2 Have an Awareness of the Purging and Starting Sequence for Gas Burning .

3.17.3 Know and Understand the Pre-Conditions for Fuel Gas Burning

3.17.4 Know and Understand the Pre and Post Gas Burning Purge and Venting Sequences.

3.17.5 Know and Understand the Procedures to Supply Vapour to the Machinery

3.17.6 Know and Understand the Maintenance and Testing Requirements.

3.17.7 Have an Awareness of the Non-Standard Operating Conditions Standard Operations

4.1 Cargo Tank Cleaning

4.1.1 Have an Awareness of the Requirement for Cleanliness of Cargo Tanks .

4.1.2 Know and Understand the Requirement and Methods for Cleaning Cargo Tanks

4.2 Hold Space and Cargo Tank Drying .  

4.2.1 Have an Awareness of the Requirement and Methods of Drying Hold Spaces Cargo Tanks

4.2.2 Know and Understand the Correct Line-Up of Supply and Exhaust Valves

and Pipelines .

4.2.3 Know and Understand the Operation of Inert Gas Plant to Deliver Dry Air .

4.2.4 Monitoring Procedures and Analyse Locations .

4.2.5 Parameters Used to Determine Operation Completed

4.3 Nitrogen Purging of Containment System

4.3.1 Have an Awareness of the Requirement and Methods of Nitrogen Purging .

4.3.2 Know and Understand the Different Procedures Required on Spherical and Membrane Ships

4.3.3 Know and Understand the Correct Line-Up of Supply and Exhaust Valves and Pipelines

4.3.4 Know and Understand the Operation of Nitrogen Generators.

4.3.5 Know and Understand Monitoring Procedures and Locations

4.3.6 Know and Understand Parameters to Determine Operation Completed.

4.4 Inerting of Cargo System

4.4.1 Have an Awareness of the Procedures for Inerting the Cargo System .

4.4.2 Know and Understand the Utilisation of Cargo Tanks .

4.4.3 Know and Understand the Utilisation of Cargo Pipelines

4.5 Ship and Shore Preparation and Manifold Connection

4.5.1 Have an Awareness of Safety Procedures

4.5.2 Know and Understand Safety Procedures

4.5.3 Know and Understand Manifold Pipeline Requirements Prior to Connection .

4.5.4 Have an Awareness of Shore Connection Arms

4.5.5 Know and Understand Shore Connection Arms

4.5.6 Know and Understand Manifold Filters

4.6 Gassing-Up (Purging) of Cargo System .

4.6.1 Have an Awareness of the Procedures for Gassing-Up the Cargo System

4.6.2 Know and Understand the Procedures for Gassing-Up the Cargo Tank .

4.6.3 Know and Understand the Procedures for Gassing-Up of the Cargo Pipelines

4.7 Cool-Down of Cargo System

4.7.1 Have an Awareness of the Procedures for Cooling Down the Cargo System

4.7.2 Know and Understand the Procedures for Cooling Down the Cargo System

4.8 Loading

4.8.1 Have an Awareness of Loading Procedures .

4.8.2 Know and Understand Loading Procedures

4.8.3 Know De-Ballasting Procedures

4.8.4 Have an Awareness of the Procedures for Cargo Line Draining .

4.8.5 Know and Understand the Procedures for Cargo Line Draining .

4.9 Loaded and Ballast Passage

4.9.1 Have an Awareness of Cargo Management Principles .

4.9.2 Know and Understand Cargo Heel and Cargo Tank Temperature Management Procedures

4.10 Discharging.

4.10.1 Have an Awareness of Cargo Discharge Principles

4.10.2 Know and Understand Cargo Discharge Principles

4.10.3 Know and Understand Cargo Discharge Procedures

4.10.4 Know Ballasting Procedures

4.11 Warm-Up

4.11.1 Have an Awareness of Warm-Up Procedures .

4.11.2 Know and Understand the Principles of Warm-Up

4.11.3 Know and Understand the Procedures for Warm-Up

4.12 Gas - Freeing

4.12.1 Have an Awareness of the Principles of Gas - Freeing .

4.12.2 Know and Understand the Procedures for Gas - Freeing .

4.13 Aeration

4.13.1 Have an Awareness of the Principles of Aeration

4.13.2 Know and Understand the Procedures for Aeration

5 Non-Standard and Emergency Operations

5.1 Types of Non-Standard and Emergency Operations

5.1.1 Have an Awareness of the Types of Non-Standard Operations

5.1.2 Have an Awareness of the Types of Emergency Operations

5.2 Multiple Cargo Pump Failure in One Tank

5.2.1 Know and Understand the Principles and Procedures for Multiple Cargo Pump Failure

5.2.2 Know and Understand the Procedures for the Use of Emergency Cargo Pump

5.2.3 Know and Understand the Procedures for Pressurised Discharge .

5.3 Gas Freeing a Single Tank .

5.3.1 Know and Understand the Procedures

5.4 Ship to Ship Transfer of Cargo .

5.4.1 Know and Understand the Procedures and Equipment for Ship to Ship Transfer of Cargo

5.5 Part Load and Discharge

5.5.1 Have a Knowledge and Understanding of the Procedures to be Followed . 5.6 Key Equipment not Available

5.6.1 Know and Understand the Procedures to be Followed in the Event of Key Equipment not Being Available

5.7 Loss of Gas Burning Capability

5.7.1 Know and Understand the Effect upon the Cargo Tank Condition When Boil-Off Gas cannot be Processed in the Machinery Space.

5.8 Prolonged Loss of Power to Cargo and Ancillary Systems

5.8.1 Know the Power Supply Arrangements for Cargo Equipment and Ancillaries.

5.8.2 Know and Understand the Procedures and Equipment for Power Supply to Cargo Equipment and Ancillaries

5.9 Loss of Primary Barrier .

5.9.1 Know and Understand the Procedures for Cargo Removal from Insulation and Hold Spaces

5.10 Ballast Tank Leakage into Containment Space

5.10.1 Know and Understand the Action to be taken in the Event of Ballast Tank Leakage into Containment Space .

5.11 Nitrogen Supply Failure

5.11.1 Know and Understand Alarm Settings and Resulting Actions .

5.12 Jettison of Cargo

5.12.1 Know and Understand the Procedures

5.13 Overfilling of a Cargo Tank .

5.13.1 Know the Means by which the Alarm is Raised for Cargo Tank High Level .

5.13.2 Know and Understand the Procedures to be Followed in the Event of Overfilling a Cargo Tank

5.14 Loss of Cargo Pipeline Containment

5.14.1 Know and Understand the Action to be taken in the Event of Leakage from a Cargo Pipeline or Valve

5.15 Failure of Integrated Automation System .

5.15.1 Know and Understand the Procedures for Failure of the System .

5.16 Uncontrolled Release of Cargo

5.16.1 Know and Understand the Procedures to be Followed in the Event of Uncontrolled Release

6 Commercial Considerations

6.1 Terms and Conditions in Use

6.1.1 Have an Awareness of the Following Terms and their Relevance .

6.1.2 Have an Awareness of the Principles of LNG Measurement

6.1.3 Have an Awareness of the Basic Types of Time Charters .

6.1.4 Have an Awareness of Basic LNG Time Charter Performance Clauses .

6.1.5 Have an Awareness of the Economic Implications of Boil-Off/Heel Management

6.1.6 Have an Awareness of Relevant Industry International Organisations and Bodies.

6.2 Vetting and Inspection Processes

6.2.1 Have an Awareness of Vetting and Inspection Processes

6.2.2 Know and Understand the Vetting and Inspection Processes .

6.3 Terminal Compatibility Assessment

6.3.1 Know and Understand the Information Required to Determine a Ship's Compatibility with a Terminal .

Annex - I Reference Documents

Annex - II LNG Experience Matrix .

Annex - III LNG Gallery .  

 

Title: LNG Shipping Knowledge 2nd Edition
Subtitle: Underpinning knowledge to the SIGTTO standards
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: Second
Number of Pages: 464
Product Code: WS1310K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-504-4 (9781856095044), ISBN 10: 1-85609-504-5 (1856095045)
Published Date: November 2011
Binding Format: Hardback
Weight: 2.10 kg

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