Loading and Offloading of LNG in Open Seas (eBook)

Published Date

January 2002

Loading and Offloading of LNG in Open Seas (eBook)

(Excludes any applicable taxes)

This paper describes the background to the consideration of the feasibility of development of an LNG FPSO. (43pp)

Be the first to review this product

During the early 80's the attractiveness of placing a natural gas liquefaction plant on a barge, moored at or close to an offshore field was identified. Such barges can either be part of an oil development in which it liquefies associated gas or a stand-alone field development of remote green gas fields. In the associated gas case, the Floating LNG system makes remote oil developments feasible on environmental grounds by turning the problem of associated gas disposal into a moneymaking opportunity. In the green gas field case, the Floating LNG is an economical means to develop remote offshore gas fields. In the wake of the already successful Floating Production Storage and Offloading Systems (FPSO's), which have proven their suitability to develop both small and large oil fields, the industry is now considering LNG FPSO's.

As with the known FPSO's, the key to attractiveness of Floating LNG lies in the integration of well control, processing, storage and offloading on a barge positioned in the vicinity of the field. It replaces the offshore platform and pipeline, as well as the jetty and the onshore storage and process plant. This provides a significant opportunity to reduce cost and project time. The topsides and the barge can be built and commissioned in a yard under controlled conditions using highly experienced staff. During operations, the barge operates offshore unhindered by local conditions. Additional advantages are that after depletion of a reservoir, the barge may be moved to a different field, and that at the end of its service life, the barge can be economically abandoned. The idea of Floating LNG is not new. However, recently the industry has returned its focus to LNG FPSO's. The main reasons for this renewed interest in Floating LNG are:
– The extensive experience and the confidence gained with oil FPSO's
– The technology advances made over the past twenty years, and
– Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) FPSO's with relatively complex topsides, storage and offloading at –45 deg C. The LNG technology itself has become mature, and process plants and carriers have proven to be capable to operate in excess of their initial 20 years design life while achieving an excellent safety record. In general, extensive operational experience has been gained on both FPSO operations and all aspects of LNG production, shipping and marketing.

Paper Delivered by:
Wim van Wijngaarden
Jean-Pierre Queau,
Luc Pescio
(all of Single Buoy Moorings, Monaco)

Prepared for:
Gastech Doha 2002

For over 45 years, the Gastech Exhibition & Conference has been at the forefront of the international gas and LNG market. This world-renowned event is regarded as the most significant meeting place for gas and LNG professionals, where the global industry gathers to do business.

Gastech hosts major IOCs, NOC’s, global utility companies, EPC contractors, shipbuilders, pipeline companies, manufacturers, distributors, technology and service providers, all who play an active role in the global energy value chain.

Title: Loading and Offloading of LNG in Open Seas (eBook)
Product Code: 4433g150
Published Date: January 2002

Bought this product? Why not review it?

If you have a question about this product, please contact us directly.

Windows eBooks:


To access the eBook, you need to install our free Windows eBook Reader.

The application can be downloaded from:



Standalone eBooks are supplied with 1 licence + 1 backup and are not transferable between platforms.


Remote Desktop Services (Terminal Services) and virtual environments are not supported.


The Windows eBook Reader works with Windows XP or later OS (but not Windows RT).

See more details.


Cloud (online) eBooks:


The Cloud (online) eBooks use Microsoft Silverlight browser plugin to deliver the best possible reading experience with the ability to work in offline mode.


It is an annual subscription service (i.e. each eBook is purchased for 1 year of use).

Online licences are not transferrable to Windows or iPad (or vice-versa).


Silverlight is compatible with the major web browsers used on Windows and Mac OS X operating systems.

However it is not supported on Linux, Android, Windows RT and iPad devices and therefore the Cloud eBooks use an HTML site in these instances.

The HTML site is more restricted than the Silverlight version.


See https://www.microsoft.com/silverlight/what-is-silverlight and more details.


Note for Mac Users:


Mac users can read Windows eBooks with Boot Camp or using virtual machines such as Parallels Desktop, Virtual Box, ...

Alternatively, Cloud (online) eBooks are accessible on Mac, including the Silverlight plugin with offline mode.


Note for Linux Users:


Linux users can read Windows eBooks using a virtual PC.

Alternatively, the HTML version of the Cloud (online) eBooks is accessible.


Note for Tablet Users:


Tablets owners can use the HTML version of the Cloud (online) eBooks.