Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG3), 3rd Edition (eBook)

Published Date

October 2008


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Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG3), 3rd Edition (eBook)

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This publication provides a major revision and update to the original content to reflect changes in ship and terminal design, operating practices and advances in technology. These guidelines cover the minimum recommended OCIMF mooring requirements, supported by a CD version with two licenses.

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The shipping industry has always been concerned with safe mooring practices. A fundamental aspect of this concern entails the development of mooring systems which are adequate for the intended service, with maximum integration of standards across the range of ship types and sizes.

Although numerous standards, guidelines and recommendations concerning mooring practices, mooring fittings and mooring equipment exist, where guidance is given or it is often incomplete. For example, the number of hawsers and their breaking strength may be recommended without any advice on mooring winch pulling force or brake holding capacity. These guidelines are intended to provide an extensive overview of the requirements for safe mooring from both a ship and terminal perspective embrace the full spectrum of issues from the calculation of a ship's restraint requirements, the selection of rope and fitting types to the retirement criteria for mooring lines.

MEG3 consolidates the following titles:
Guidelines on the Use of High-Modulus Synthetic Fibre Ropes as Mooring Lines on Large Tankers (First Edition 2002)
Recommendations for Ships' Fittings for Use with Tugs (First Edition 2002)
Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs (Second Edition 1994)
Prediction of Wind Loads on Large Liquefied Gas Carriers (First Edition Reprinted 1995).

Section                 

INTRODUCTION

LIST OF FIGURES    

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF PICTURES  

            GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS            

            BIBLIOGRAPHY           

                       

 

1          PRINCIPLES OF MOORING     

                1.1          General

                1.2          Forces Acting on the Ship 

                                1.2.1       Wind and Current Forces 

                1.3          Mooring Pattern  

                1.4          Elasticity of Lines               

                1.5          General Mooring Guidelines            

                1.6          Operational Considerations            

                1.7          Terminal Mooring System Management       

                                1.7.1       Operating Limits 

                                1.7.2       Operating Guidelines/Mooring Limits            

                                1.7.3       Joint Terminal/Ship Meeting and Inspection

                                1.7.4       Instrumented Mooring Hooks or Visual Inspection of Mooring

                                                Lines     

                1.8          Ship Mooring Management              

                                1.8.1       Line Tending       

                1.9          Emergency and Excessively High Mooring Load Conditions    

                1.10        Limitations on Use of Tugs and Boats          

                1.11        General Recommendations            

                                1.11.1     Recommendations for Berth Designers       

                                1.11.2     Recommendations for Terminal Operators 

                                1.11.3     Recommendations for Ship Designers        

                                1.11.4     Recommendations for Ship Operators         

 

 

2          MOORING RESTRAINT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA        

            2.1          General Considerations   

                2.2          Standard Environmental Criteria     

                2.3          Calculation of Forces

                2.4          Mooring Restraint Requirements

                                2.4.1       Basic Principles of Mooring Calculations                                                       2.4.1.1    The Principle of Static Equilibrium          

               

 

Section                 

 

                                                2.4.1.2    The Load/Deflection Characteristics of each Mooring

                                                                Line and Breasting Dolphin             

                                                2.4.1.3    The Geometrical Relationship between the Parts of

                                                                the System           

                                2.4.2       Standard Restraint Requirements

                2.5          Site-Specific Environmental Data and Mooring Line Loads

                                2.5.1       Most Probable Maximum (MPM) Wave Motions

 

3          MOORING ARRANGEMENTS AND LAYOUTS   

                3.1          Principal Objectives           

                3.2          Requirements at Piers and Sea Islands       

                                3.2.1       Number, Size and Type of Lines     

                                3.2.2       Arrangements for Breast Lines       

                                3.2.3       Arrangements for Spring Lines       

                                3.2.4       Special Arrangements for Gas Carriers        

                3.3          Requirements at SPMs     

                3.4          Requirements for Emergency Towing, Escorting and Pull-Back

                                3.4.1       Fittings for Tug Escort and Pull-Back             

                3.5          Requirements for Multi-Buoy Moorings         

                3.6          Requirements for Harbour Towing 

                3.7          Requirements for Barge Mooring   

                3.8          Requirements for Canal Transit     

                3.9          Requirements for Ship-to-Ship (STS) Transfer            

                                3.9.1       Requirements for Offtaker

                                3.9.2       Requirements for Discharge Ship

                3.10        Arrangements at Cargo Manifolds  

                3.11        Mooring Augmentation in Exceptional Conditions       

                                3.11.1     Provision of Shore Moorings            

                                3.11.2     Use of Shore-Based Pulley              

                                3.11.3     Advantage of Pulley System             

                                3.11.4     Disadvantage of Pulley System       

                3.12        Emergency Towing-off Pennants    

                3.13        Combination of Various Requirements         

                3.14        Safety and Operational Considerations        

                3.15        Equipment and Fitting Line-up        

 

4          DESIGN LOADS, SAFETY FACTORS AND STRENGTH 

                4.1          General                

                4.2          Basic Strength Philosophy               

                4.3          Existing Standards and Requirements         

                4.4          Recommended Design Criteria

                                4.4.1       Bitts (Double Bollards)

                                4.4.2       Single Cruciform Bollard

Section                 

                                4.4.3       Recessed Bitt

                                4.4.4       Closed Chocks

                                4.4.5       Pedestal Fairleads and Rollers of Button-Roller Chocks

4.4.6   Universal Fairlead (4 Roller Type)

4.4.7   Universal Fairlead (5 Roller Type)

4.4.8   Emergency Towing Arrangement

4.4.9   Single Point Mooring Equipment

4.4.10 Mooring Winches

4.4.11 Comparison of Combined Stresses with the 85% of Yield Criterion

                4.5          Strength Testing of Mooring Fittings               

                4.6          Marking of Mooring Fittings              

                4.7          General Recommendations            

                                4.7.1       Recommendations for Ship Designers

                                4.7.2       Recommendations for Ship Operators         

 

5          STRUCTURAL REINFORCEMENTS       

                5.1          Basic Considerations       

                5.2          Mooring Winches               

                5.3          Chocks and Fairleads       

                5.4          Pedestal Fairleads            

                5.5          Bitts

                5.6          Recessed Bitts   

                5.7          SPM Fittings and Smit Brackets

                5.8          Tug Push Points 

                5.9          Special Considerations    

                                5.9.1       Rounded Gunwale Connection       

                                5.9.2       Doublers versus Inserts   

                                5.9.3       High Strength Steel Fittings             

                5.10        Certification and Inspection

 

6          MOORING LINES         

                6.1          General

                                6.1.1       General Safety Hazards

                                6.1.2       Strength Criteria

                                6.1.3       Elasticity

                                6.1.4       Record Keeping 

                6.2          Wire Mooring Lines            

                                6.2.1       Material 

                                6.2.2       Construction        

                                6.2.3       Corrosion Protection         

                                6.2.4       Bend Radius       

                                6.2.5       Handling, Inspection and Removal from Service        

                                6.2.6       Standard Specifications    

                6.3          Conventional Fibre Mooring Lines  

Section                 

                                6.3.1       General

                                                6.3.1.1    Polyester              

                                                6.3.1.2    Polyamide (previously referred to as 'Nylon')

                                                6.3.1.3    Polypropylene     

                                                6.3.1.4    Combinations of Materials               

                                6.3.2       Construction        

                                6.3.3       Bend Radius       

                                6.3.4       Handling and Storage of Synthetic Lines

                6.4          High Modulus Fibre Mooring Lines

                                6.4.1       General

                                6.4.2       Properties of High Modulus Synthetic Fibres

                                6.4.3       High Modulus Synthetic Fibre Materials

                                                6.4.3.1    Trade Names

                                                6.4.3.2    Aramid Fibres

                                                6.4.3.3    Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Fibres

                                                6.4.3.4    High Modulus Polyethylene (HMPE) Fibres

                                6.4.4       High Modulus Synthetic Rope Constructions

                                6.4.5       Characteristics

                                                6.4.5.1    Strength

                                                6.4.5.2    Elasticity

                                                6.4.5.3    Chemical Resistance

                                6.4.6       Selection Criteria

                                                6.4.6.1    Strength

                                                6.4.6.2    Construction

                                                6.4.6.3    Elastic Elongation

                                                6.4.6.4    Coefficient of Friction

                                6.4.7       Installation

                                                6.4.7.1    General

                                                6.4.7.2    Chafe Protection

                                                6.4.7.3    Mooring Winches

                                                6.4.7.4    Fatigue and Service Life

                                6.4.8       Inspection and Removal from Service

                6.5          Synthetic Tails

                                6.5.1       General

                                6.5.2       Tail Length

                                6.5.3       Retirement Criteria

                                6.5.4       Methods of Connecting Tails

 

7                         WINCH PERFORMANCE, BRAKE HOLDING CAPACITY AND STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS     

                7.1          Function and Type of Mooring Winches

                                7.1.1       Automatic Tension Winches            

                7.2          Winch Drums      

                                7.2.1       Split Drums         

Section                 

                                7.2.2       Undivided Drums               

                                7.2.3       Handling of SPM Pick-up Ropes     

                7.3          Winch Drives       

                                7.3.1       Hydraulic Drives

                                7.3.2       Self-Contained Electro-Hydraulic Drives       

                                7.3.3       Electric Drives

                                7.3.4       Steam   

                7.4          Winch Brakes      

                                7.4.1       Layers of Mooring Line on Drum     

                                7.4.2       Band Brakes       

                                                7.4.2.1    Torque Applied   

                                                7.4.2.2    Condition of the Winch      

                                                7.4.2.3    Winch in Gear     

                                                7.4.2.4    Friction Coefficient             

                                                7.4.2.5    Load Dependency of Holding Capacity         

                                                7.4.2.6    Sensitivity to Reeling Direction        

                                7.4.3       Disc Brakes         

                                7.4.4       Input Brakes        

                                7.4.5       Winch Brake Testing         

                                                7.4.5.1    General

                                                7.4.5.2    Frequency            

                                                7.4.5.3    Test Specification

                                                7.4.5.4    Supervision of Testing

                                                7.4.5.5    Test Equipment

                                                7.4.5.6    Method of Testing

                                7.4.6       Brake Holding Capacity    

                7.5          Winch Performance           

                                7.5.1       Rated Pull            

                                7.5.2       Rated Speed       

                                7.5.3       Light-Line Speed

                                7.5.4       Stall Heaving Capacity      

                                7.5.5       Drum Capacity    

                7.6          Strength Requirements    

                7.7          Winch Testing     

                                7.7.1       Rules Concerning Testing at Manufacturer's Facility for the

                                                Acceptance of the Manufacturer and Purchaser          

                                7.7.2       On-board Acceptance Test               

                7.8          Summary of Recommendations     

                                7.8.1       Recommendations for Ship Designers        

                                7.8.2       Recommendations for Ship Operators         

 

8          MOORING FITTINGS   

                8.1          Introduction          

                8.2          Mooring Bitts       

Section                 

                8.3          Cruciform Bollards             

                8.4          Closed and Panama-Type Chocks

                8.5          Roller Fairleads and Pedestal Fairleads      

                8.6          Universal Roller Fairleads               

                8.7          Selection of Fitting Type

                8.8          Stoppers              

               

APPENDICES

A                                  Wind and Current Drag Coefficients for VLCC's and Gas Carriers and Example Force Calculation

B                                 Rope Over-strength       

C                                 Guidelines for Handling, Inspection and Removal from Service of Wire Mooring Lines 

D             Guidelines for Inspection and Removal from Service of Fibre Ropes    

E             Tanker Mounted SPM Fittings          

F              Strength of Chain Tensioned over a Curved Surface

OCIMF was formed in April 1970 in response to the growing public concern about marine pollution, particularly by oil, after the Torrey Canyon incident in 1967. In the early 1970s, a variety of anti-pollution initiatives were starting to emerge nationally, regionally and internationally, but with little coordination. Through OCIMF, the oil industry was able to play a stronger, coordinating role in response to these initiatives, making its professional expertise widely available through cooperation with governments and intergovernmental bodies.

OCIMF was granted consultative status at the IMO in 1971 and continues to present oil industry views at IMO meetings. Since then, its role has broadened to take account the changing maritime activities of its membership. Its remit now covers tankers, barges, offshore support vessels and terminals and its advice extends to issues like shipping in ice and large-scale piracy, which rarely troubled the oil industry when OCIMF was first created in the 1970s.

The current membership of OCIMF comprises 112 companies worldwide.

Today, OCIMF is widely recognised as the voice of the oil industry providing expertise in the safe and environmentally responsible transport and handling of hydrocarbons in ships and terminals and setting standards for continuous improvement. Membership is extensive and includes every oil major in the world along with the majority of National Oil Companies.

OCIMF has much to be proud of. Not only has it contributed to a substantial quantity of regulation at the IMO aimed at improving the safety of tankers and protecting the environment, but it has introduced important new guidance on pressing current issues such as piracy and Arctic shipping. With the process of introducing new Internationally-accepted regulation necessarily slow as it crosses many individual countries and jurisdictions, OCIMF is in the unique position of being able to leverage the expertise of its membership to press ahead with much needed guidance on important industry issues. This provides the means to improve practices in the membership and in the wider industry, and serves as a valuable reference for developing regulation.

Title: Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG3), 3rd Edition (eBook)
Number of Pages: 292
Product Code: WS1139EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-905331-32-1 (9781905331321), ISBN 10: 1-905331-32-0 (1905331320)
Published Date: October 2008

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