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Published Date

October 2008

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Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG3), 3rd Edition

(Excludes any applicable taxes)

This publication provides a major revision and update to the original content to reflect changes in ship and terminal design, operating practices and advances in technology. These guidelines cover the minimum recommended OCIMF mooring requirements, supported by a CD version with two licenses.

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The shipping industry has always been concerned with safe mooring practices. A fundamental aspect of this concern entails the development of mooring systems which are adequate for the intended service, with maximum integration of standards across the range of ship types and sizes.

Although numerous standards, guidelines and recommendations concerning mooring practices, mooring fittings and mooring equipment exist, where guidance is given or it is often incomplete. For example, the number of hawsers and their breaking strength may be recommended without any advice on mooring winch pulling force or brake holding capacity. These guidelines are intended to provide an extensive overview of the requirements for safe mooring from both a ship and terminal perspective embrace the full spectrum of issues from the calculation of a ship's restraint requirements, the selection of rope and fitting types to the retirement criteria for mooring lines.

MEG3 consolidates the following titles:
Guidelines on the Use of High-Modulus Synthetic Fibre Ropes as Mooring Lines on Large Tankers (First Edition 2002)
Recommendations for Ships' Fittings for Use with Tugs (First Edition 2002)
Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs (Second Edition 1994)
Prediction of Wind Loads on Large Liquefied Gas Carriers (First Edition Reprinted 1995).








                1.1          General

                1.2          Forces Acting on the Ship 

                                1.2.1       Wind and Current Forces 

                1.3          Mooring Pattern  

                1.4          Elasticity of Lines               

                1.5          General Mooring Guidelines            

                1.6          Operational Considerations            

                1.7          Terminal Mooring System Management       

                                1.7.1       Operating Limits 

                                1.7.2       Operating Guidelines/Mooring Limits            

                                1.7.3       Joint Terminal/Ship Meeting and Inspection

                                1.7.4       Instrumented Mooring Hooks or Visual Inspection of Mooring


                1.8          Ship Mooring Management              

                                1.8.1       Line Tending       

                1.9          Emergency and Excessively High Mooring Load Conditions    

                1.10        Limitations on Use of Tugs and Boats          

                1.11        General Recommendations            

                                1.11.1     Recommendations for Berth Designers       

                                1.11.2     Recommendations for Terminal Operators 

                                1.11.3     Recommendations for Ship Designers        

                                1.11.4     Recommendations for Ship Operators         




            2.1          General Considerations   

                2.2          Standard Environmental Criteria     

                2.3          Calculation of Forces

                2.4          Mooring Restraint Requirements

                                2.4.1       Basic Principles of Mooring Calculations                                                 The Principle of Static Equilibrium           

                                          The Load/Deflection Characteristics of each Mooring

                                                                Line and Breasting Dolphin             

                                          The Geometrical Relationship between the Parts of

                                                                the System           

                                2.4.2       Standard Restraint Requirements

                2.5          Site-Specific Environmental Data and Mooring Line Loads

                                2.5.1       Most Probable Maximum (MPM) Wave Motions



                3.1          Principal Objectives           

                3.2          Requirements at Piers and Sea Islands       

                                3.2.1       Number, Size and Type of Lines     

                                3.2.2       Arrangements for Breast Lines       

                                3.2.3       Arrangements for Spring Lines       

                                3.2.4       Special Arrangements for Gas Carriers        

                3.3          Requirements at SPMs     

                3.4          Requirements for Emergency Towing, Escorting and Pull-Back

                                3.4.1       Fittings for Tug Escort and Pull-Back             

                3.5          Requirements for Multi-Buoy Moorings         

                3.6          Requirements for Harbour Towing 

                3.7          Requirements for Barge Mooring   

                3.8          Requirements for Canal Transit     

                3.9          Requirements for Ship-to-Ship (STS) Transfer            

                                3.9.1       Requirements for Offtaker

                                3.9.2       Requirements for Discharge Ship

                3.10        Arrangements at Cargo Manifolds  

                3.11        Mooring Augmentation in Exceptional Conditions       

                                3.11.1     Provision of Shore Moorings            

                                3.11.2     Use of Shore-Based Pulley              

                                3.11.3     Advantage of Pulley System             

                                3.11.4     Disadvantage of Pulley System       

                3.12        Emergency Towing-off Pennants    

                3.13        Combination of Various Requirements         

                3.14        Safety and Operational Considerations        

                3.15        Equipment and Fitting Line-up        



                4.1          General                

                4.2          Basic Strength Philosophy               

                4.3          Existing Standards and Requirements         

                4.4          Recommended Design Criteria

                                4.4.1       Bitts (Double Bollards)

                                4.4.2       Single Cruciform Bollard                

                                4.4.3       Recessed Bitt

                                4.4.4       Closed Chocks

                                4.4.5       Pedestal Fairleads and Rollers of Button-Roller Chocks

4.4.6   Universal Fairlead (4 Roller Type)

4.4.7   Universal Fairlead (5 Roller Type)

4.4.8   Emergency Towing Arrangement

4.4.9   Single Point Mooring Equipment

4.4.10 Mooring Winches

4.4.11 Comparison of Combined Stresses with the 85% of Yield Criterion

                4.5          Strength Testing of Mooring Fittings               

                4.6          Marking of Mooring Fittings              

                4.7          General Recommendations            

                                4.7.1       Recommendations for Ship Designers

                                4.7.2       Recommendations for Ship Operators         



                5.1          Basic Considerations       

                5.2          Mooring Winches               

                5.3          Chocks and Fairleads       

                5.4          Pedestal Fairleads            

                5.5          Bitts

                5.6          Recessed Bitts   

                5.7          SPM Fittings and Smit Brackets

                5.8          Tug Push Points 

                5.9          Special Considerations    

                                5.9.1       Rounded Gunwale Connection       

                                5.9.2       Doublers versus Inserts   

                                5.9.3       High Strength Steel Fittings             

                5.10        Certification and Inspection


6          MOORING LINES         

                6.1          General

                                6.1.1       General Safety Hazards

                                6.1.2       Strength Criteria

                                6.1.3       Elasticity

                                6.1.4       Record Keeping 

                6.2          Wire Mooring Lines            

                                6.2.1       Material 

                                6.2.2       Construction        

                                6.2.3       Corrosion Protection         

                                6.2.4       Bend Radius       

                                6.2.5       Handling, Inspection and Removal from Service        

                                6.2.6       Standard Specifications    

                6.3          Conventional Fibre Mooring Lines                   

                                6.3.1       General


                                          Polyamide (previously referred to as 'Nylon')


                                          Combinations of Materials               

                                6.3.2       Construction        

                                6.3.3       Bend Radius       

                                6.3.4       Handling and Storage of Synthetic Lines

                6.4          High Modulus Fibre Mooring Lines

                                6.4.1       General

                                6.4.2       Properties of High Modulus Synthetic Fibres

                                6.4.3       High Modulus Synthetic Fibre Materials

                                          Trade Names

                                          Aramid Fibres

                                          Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Fibres

                                          High Modulus Polyethylene (HMPE) Fibres

                                6.4.4       High Modulus Synthetic Rope Constructions

                                6.4.5       Characteristics



                                          Chemical Resistance

                                6.4.6       Selection Criteria



                                          Elastic Elongation

                                          Coefficient of Friction

                                6.4.7       Installation


                                          Chafe Protection

                                          Mooring Winches

                                          Fatigue and Service Life

                                6.4.8       Inspection and Removal from Service

                6.5          Synthetic Tails

                                6.5.1       General

                                6.5.2       Tail Length

                                6.5.3       Retirement Criteria

                                6.5.4       Methods of Connecting Tails



                7.1          Function and Type of Mooring Winches

                                7.1.1       Automatic Tension Winches            

                7.2          Winch Drums      

                                7.2.1       Split Drums                         

                                7.2.2       Undivided Drums               

                                7.2.3       Handling of SPM Pick-up Ropes     

                7.3          Winch Drives       

                                7.3.1       Hydraulic Drives

                                7.3.2       Self-Contained Electro-Hydraulic Drives       

                                7.3.3       Electric Drives

                                7.3.4       Steam   

                7.4          Winch Brakes      

                                7.4.1       Layers of Mooring Line on Drum     

                                7.4.2       Band Brakes       

                                          Torque Applied   

                                          Condition of the Winch      

                                          Winch in Gear     

                                          Friction Coefficient             

                                          Load Dependency of Holding Capacity         

                                          Sensitivity to Reeling Direction        

                                7.4.3       Disc Brakes         

                                7.4.4       Input Brakes        

                                7.4.5       Winch Brake Testing         



                                          Test Specification

                                          Supervision of Testing

                                          Test Equipment

                                          Method of Testing

                                7.4.6       Brake Holding Capacity    

                7.5          Winch Performance           

                                7.5.1       Rated Pull            

                                7.5.2       Rated Speed       

                                7.5.3       Light-Line Speed

                                7.5.4       Stall Heaving Capacity      

                                7.5.5       Drum Capacity    

                7.6          Strength Requirements    

                7.7          Winch Testing     

                                7.7.1       Rules Concerning Testing at Manufacturer's Facility for the

                                                Acceptance of the Manufacturer and Purchaser          

                                7.7.2       On-board Acceptance Test               

                7.8          Summary of Recommendations     

                                7.8.1       Recommendations for Ship Designers        

                                7.8.2       Recommendations for Ship Operators         


8          MOORING FITTINGS   

                8.1          Introduction          

                8.2          Mooring Bitts                        

                8.3          Cruciform Bollards             

                8.4          Closed and Panama-Type Chocks

                8.5          Roller Fairleads and Pedestal Fairleads  

                8.6          Universal Roller Fairleads               

                8.7          Selection of Fitting Type

                8.8          Stoppers              



A             Wind and Current Drag Coefficients for VLCC's and Gas Carriers and Example Force Calculation

B             Rope Over-strength       

C             Guidelines for Handling, Inspection and Removal from Service of Wire Mooring Lines 

D             Guidelines for Inspection and Removal from Service of Fibre Ropes    

E             Tanker Mounted SPM Fittings          

F             Strength of Chain Tensioned over a Curved Surface

Title: Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG3), 3rd Edition
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: Third
Number of Pages: 292
Product Code: 4380
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-905331-32-1 (9781905331321), ISBN 10: 1-905331-32-0 (1905331320)
Published Date: October 2008
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 270 mm
Book Width: 300 mm
Weight: 1.40 kg

Customer Reviews

essential Review by George
numerous standards, guidelines and recommendations concerning mooring practices, mooring fittings and mooring equipment exist but these guidelines provide an extensive overview of the requirements for safe mooring (Posted on 16/03/2011)
extremely useful Review by tankeroperator
with all the updates in the relative field , we feel this publication is necessary for the operators wishing to be at the forefront of his profession. (Posted on 16/03/2011)

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