Passage Planning Principles - SKULD Edition

Published Date

August 2006

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Passage Planning Principles - SKULD Edition

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This book covers the stages to be undertaken during the preparation of a passage plan. A completely new text, it covers logically and in detail the necessary steps of: Appraisal; Planning; Execution; Monitoring.

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No. OF PAGES: 60

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A successful voyage is defined as one that fully meets its commercial requirements and maintains the highest levels of safety and efficiency.

The human errors that can affect this objective can be minimised if all aspects of the voyage are carefully planned. The purpose of this book is to focus on Passage Planning, which includes the primary recommendations for safety at sea. International, national and company specific requirements are already in existence for Passage Planning. But these "Passage Planning" books create the check-list for the bridge team to maintain agreed standards of consistency.

This book is directed at all members of the bridge team with their varying levels of skill, knowledge and experience. Techniques to prepare and conduct the proposed passage are presented clearly and concisely so that all members can understand them.


Captain Nadeem Anwar graduated from the Pakistan Marine Academy in December 1983 and in 1984, went into shipping as a deck cadet on multipurpose ships. In 1990, he started working on oil tankers and OBOs. In 1994, he returned to Fleetwood and acquired a Chief
Mates Certificate of Competency. He was promoted to Chief Officer in 1994 and continued to serve on VLCC, OBO, O/O, Gas and Chemical Tankers.

He achieved his Master Certificate of Competency from MCA UK in early 1998 and went back to sea in command of VLCCs. His time at sea was mainly spent in deep-sea trade, which gave him a wide ranging experience of navigating in different areas of the world.

In October 1998, he joined the Fleetwood Nautical Campus as a lecturer. In 2003, he became its Curriculum Manager. In 2005, he achieved an MSc in Maritime Operations with a Distinction (through LJMU) and an Advanced diploma in Insurance (through the Chartered Insurance Institute).

Captain Anwar has developed training courses and written a range of training materials. He also provides consultancy services to marine training providers and shipping companies.

Abdul Khalique MICS, PG Cert. (Shipping), MSc. (CBIS), HND Nautical Science, BSc. (Maritime Studies)

Awarded the President of Pakistan Gold Medal for best cadet during B.Sc. Maritime Studies at Pakistan Marine Academy, received the High Achievement Award and the Merchant Navy Association (Tasmania) prize on completion of 2nd mate from the Australian Maritime College.
After obtaining an HND in Nautical Science from the Blackpool and Fylde College in 2000, he earned an M.Sc. in Computer Based Information Systems from the University of Sunderland. After this, he sailed for a while but the incidents of 9/11/2001 made him pursue a shore based
career. He moved to New Zealand and studied for the Graduate Certificate in Shipping at the New Zealand Maritime School.

In June 2003 Abdul moved to SSNS at the NAFC Marine Centre as an HND Nautical Science course developer. He continued in this position until the Centre started training cadets, when he became a lecturer in Nautical studies. While in this position, he passed the Institute of Chartered Ship Brokers examination and has recently been elected as a member of the Institute.

Published: 2006
No. Pages: 60
Format: Softback
ISBN 13: 978 185 609 3220

Chapter 1 Passage Planning
1.1 Planning – Principles
1.2 Planning Stages
1.2.1 Step 1 – Voyage Instructions
1.2.2 Step 2 – Confirmation of Destination
1.2.3 Step 3 - Appraisal
1.2.4 Step 4 – Planning
1.2.5 Step 5 – Execution
1.2.6 Step 6 - Monitoring
Check-list Summary

Chapter 2 Passage Planning with ECDIS
2.1 Chart Selection
2.2 Manoeuvring Data
2.3 Route Planning
2.4 Safety Zones
2.5 Berthing Plans
2.6 Ocean Routes
2.7 Navigational Notes
2.8 Monitoring

Chapter 3 Planning Toolbox
3.1 Wheel-over
3.2 Position Fixing Frequency
3.3 Abort and Point of No Return
3.4 Under Keel Clearance (UKC)
3.5 Squat
3.6 Landfall
3.7 Changing Charts
3.8 Ship's Profile and Datum Shift
3.9 Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS)
3.10 Anchor Plan
3.11 Radar Horizon
3.12 Use of Tidal Streams
3.12.1 Tidal Stream Tables
3.12.2 Tidal Streams Atlases
3.12.3 Tidal Diamonds
3.12.4 Harmonic Constants
3.12.5 Software
3.13 Tidal Predictions

Chapter 4 Monitoring Techniques
4.1 Parallel Indexing (PI)
4.1.1 Cross Index Range (CIR) Method
4.1.2 Bearing and Range Method – Straight Index Lines
4.1.3 Bearing and Range Method – Curved Index Lines
4.1.4 Use of VRM
4.2 Precautions with Parallel Indexing
4.3 Visual Monitoring Techniques
4.3.1 Clearing Marks
4.3.2 Vertical Danger Angle
4.3.3 Horizontal Danger Angle
4.3.4 Clearing Bearings
4.3.5 Sector Lights
4.3.6 Leading Lights / Marks

Appendix 1 – Passage Planning Guidelines/Regulations
Appendix 2 – Passage Plan Check-list
Appendix 3 – Chartwork Legends
Appendix 4 – Passage Plan Note Book
Appendix 5 – Passage Plan Sheet

The two books ‘Passage Planning Practice’ and ‘Passage Planning Principles’ both by Abdul Khalique and Capt. Nadeem Anwar, together provide a comprehensive, easy to follow guide and an excellent set of standards to be worked through. By providing check-lists and a fully worked example, the authors have created a guide that builds upon the sound principles of passage planning, that can be used in a real-life situation, providing a much needed ‘job based’ training aid.

Skuld offers Protection and Indemnity (P&I) for shipowners, liability covers for charterers, defence insurance as well as offshore cover. Additional marine and energy covers are provided through Skuld 1897, a Syndicate at Lloyd’s.

Title: Passage Planning Principles - SKULD Edition
Number of Pages: 60
Product Code: 4365
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-322-4 (9781856093224), ISBN 10: 1-85609-322-0 (1856093220)
Published Date: August 2006
Binding Format: Paperback
Book Height: 300 mm
Book Width: 210 mm
Book Spine: 5 mm
Weight: 0.50 kg

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