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Published Date

August 1999

Refrigerated Transportation, 2nd Edition

$38.22
(Excludes any applicable taxes)

This book covers the transportation of perishable goods by sea. It provides a detailed description of the transportation of perishable goods world-wide. Reviewing every aspect of the industry, including preservation, transportation, development, technology, terminal and transport economics and international standards, it uses an example commodity study of bananas to explain many of the points.

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Now in its second edition this book provides a detailed description of the transportation of perishable goods by sea.

 

This book reviews every aspect of the industry, including preservation, transportation, development, technology, terminal and transport economics and international standards. It uses a commodity study of bananas to explain many of the points.

 

PART 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 THE PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION

1.2 THE PRACTICE OF REFRIGERATION

1.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION

1.4 THE APPLICATION OF REFRIGERATION TO FOODSTUFFS

PART 2 THE HISTORY OF REFRIGERATED TRANSPORT

2.1 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS

2.2 LATER DEVELOPMENTS

2.3 THE REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

2.4 REFRIGERATED RAIL TRANSPORT

PART 3 THE PRESERVATION OF PERISHABLE FOODSTUFF

3.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

3.2 DETERIORATION OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

3.3 HANDLING TECHNIQUES

3.4 PRESERVATION OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

3.5 THE CASE OF THE LESSER DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

PART 4 THE TRANSPORT OF PERISHABLE FOODSTUFF

4.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

4.2 MODIFIED AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES

4.3 PRODUCT STOWAGE

4.4 PALLETIZATION

4.5 ROAD TRANSPORT OF PERISHABLES

4.6 AIR TRANSPORT

PART 5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

5.1 WHAT IS A REFRIGERATED CONTAINER?

5.2 TECHNICAL FACTORS

5.3 THE REFRIGERATED TANK CONTAINER

PART 6 TECHNOLOGY OF THE REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

6.1 AIR DELIVERY SYSTEMS

6.2 REFRIGERATED MACHINERY

6.3 INTEGRAL AND PORTHOLE TYPES

6.4 TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND DATA LOGGING

6.5 REMOTE MONITORING

6.6 ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

6.7 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

PART 7 CONTAINER TERMINAL AND TRANSPORT LOGISTICS

7.1 LOGISTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR REEFERS IN EXISTING (SMALL) PORTS

7.2 LOGISTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR REEFERS AT TRANSFER POINTS

7.3 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT/INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSPORTING BY TRUCK AND/OR TRAIN

7.4 SIZES, TYPES AND LOGISTICAL PARAMETERS GOVERNING DEDICATED REEFER CONTAINER VESSELS

PART 8 SOME ECONOMICAL CONSIDERATIONS

8.1 TRANSITION FROM BULK TO CONTAINER REEFER

8.2 CONDITIONS FOR OPERATING REFRIGERATED CONTAINERS ON CONVENTIONAL VESSELS IN COASTAL AND INTER-ISLAND TRADES

8.3 DEAD-HEADING EMPTY REEFERS VERSUS THEIR USE FOR NON-REFRIGERATED CARGOES

8.4 OPERATING COSTS

8.5 PURCHASE VERSUS LEASING – THE ROLE OF THE LEASING COMPANY

PART 9 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION

9.3 INSPECTING AND TESTING BODIES

9.4 ATP/ECE

9.5 US DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

9.6 OTHER RULES AND BODIES

9.7 THE IMO AND CSC

9.8 LABELLING

9.9 THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL

PART 10 BANANAS – A COMMODITY STUDY

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 THE TRADE IN BANANAS

10.3 REGIONAL TRADE SUMMARIES

10.4 PARTICIPATION

10.5 INFRASTRUCTURE

10.6 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

10.7 A CASE STUDY

10.8 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS AND PROSPECTS

10.9 BANANAS – TEN YEARS ON

PART 11 ENVIRONMENTAL AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

11.1 GENERAL

11.2 MODIFIED AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES

11.3 GENETIC ENGINEERING

11.4 THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL

11.5 INTERNATIONAL COMPLIANCE

11.6 LEGISLATION IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

11.7 POSTSCRIPT – THERE'S ALWAYS TOMORROW

APPENDICES

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS

MATCH REEFER COMMODITIES

REEFER TRADE TO 2005

REEFER TRADE TO COMMODITIES

ABBREVIATIONS

SUMMARIES

INDEX

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG 1.1 THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE

FIG 1.2 AN EARLY COLD AIR MACHINE

FIG 1.3 THE BELL-COLEMAN MACHINE

FIG 1.4 THE SINGLE SCREW COMPRESSOR (COURTESY OF APV HALL PRODUCTS LTD)

FIG 2.1 MEAT BEING LANDED IN LONDON IN 1881 (COURTESY OF THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS)

FIG 2.2 THE ILL-FATED DUNEDIN

FIG 2.3 AN ISOTHERMIC CONTAINER (INTERIOR VIEW) (COURTESY OF W.H. DAVIS LTD)

FIG 2.4 AN INTEGRAL REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

FIG 2.5 A PRESS ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE 1960s (COURTESY OF SEA CONTAINERS LTD)

FIG 2.6 AN INFREGO REFRIGERATED RAIL WAGON BETWEEN ITALY AND SWITZERLAND

FIG 2.7 BANANAS IN TRANSIT

FIG 2.8 A REEFER STARTS ITS JOURNEY

FIG 4.1 TEMPERATURE CONTROL BY HOT GAS INJECTION

FIG 4.2 TEMPERATURE CONTROL BY SUCTION THROTTLING

FIG 4.3 COMPATIBILTY OF CARGOES

FIG 4.4 STOWAGE PATTERN

FIG 4.5 TOP AIRFLOW PATTERN FOR FROZEN PRODUCTS

FIG 4.6 TOP AIRFLOW PATTERN FOR CHILLED PRODUCTS

FIG 4.7 STOWAGE PATTERN FOR CHILLED PRODUCTS

FIG 4.8 BLOCK STOW PATTERN WITH BOTTOM AIR DELIVERY

FIG 4.9 STOWAGE PATTERN FOR PALLETIZED LOADS – BOTTOM AIR DELIVERY

(COURTESY OF AMERICAN PRESIDENTS COMPANIES FOR FIGS 4.4 TO 4.9)

FIG 4.10 CUTAWAY VIEW OF AN INTEGRAL REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

FIG 4.11 VEHICLE LOADING CHECK LIST

FIG 4.12 LOADING A REEFER TO OPTIMIZE QUALITY

FIG 5.1 A SEA CONTAINERS REEFER TANK LOADED WITH A CONSIGNMENT OF BELGIAN LAGER BEER

FOR SHIPMENT TO AUSTRALIA

FIG 5.2 DIAGRAMMATIC ILLUSTRATION OF THE SEA CONTAINERS REEFER TANK

FIG 5.3 SEA CONTAINERS REEFER TANK SYSTEM

FIG 5.4 A CPV TANK REFRIGERATED BY A THERMO KING UNIT

FIG 5.5 HOT DUSTY CONDITIONS, BUT COOL UNBLEMISHED PRODUCT

FIG 6.1 A CONAIR SHIPSIDE COOLING AIR SUPPLY SYSTEM

FIG 6.2 THERMOGUARD MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER

FIG 6.3 A SEA CONTAINERS POWER PACK

FIG 6.4 THE SEA CONTAINERS POWER PACK – GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN

FIG 6.5 A CARRIER TRANSICOLD CLIP-ON UNIT BEING MOUNTED

FIG 6.6 A CARRIER TRANSICOLD CLIP-ON UNIT ATTACHED TO A REEFER

FIG 6.7 A TATE UNDERSLUG DIESEL GENSET ATTACHED TO A CHASSIS

FIG 7.1 DIAGRAM OF TERMINAL REFRIGERATION INSTALLATION (COURTESY OF ASSOCIATED CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION LTD)

FIG 7.2 REFRIGERATED CONTAINERS CONNECTED TO A TERMINAL INSTALLATION AT TILBURY DOCKS

(COURTESY OF LONDON MUSEUM OF DOCKLAND)

FIG 7.3 TRANSHIPMENT OF A VERY SMART REEFER

FIG 8.1 WASHING AND REMOVING THE PLASTIC PROTECTION BAGS FROM BANANAS

FIG 9.1 A TYPICAL ENERGY LABEL

FIG 10.1 A SEA CONTAINERS SHIFTER RUBBER WHEELED GANTRY CRANE

FIG 10.2 AN OVERHEAD PULLEY SYSTEM IS THE BEST WAY OF MOVING BANANA CROPS AND WORKERS!

FIG 10.3 SWIFT TRANSPORTATION ENSURES PRODUCE ARRIVES IN THE BEST POSSIBLE CONDITIONS

FIG 10.4 TRANSHIPMENT THROUGH SINGAPORE

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1.1 TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLE

TABLE 3.1 TEMPERATURES FOR THE TRANSPORT OF FRUIT

TABLE 3.2 TEMPERATURES FOR THE TRANSPORT OF VEGETABLES

TABLE 3.3 TEMPERATURES FOR THE TRANSPORT OF MEAT, FISH AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

TABLE 3.4 EXPORTING AND IMPORTING COUNTRIES OF BANANAS

TABLE 3.5 EXPORTING AND IMPORTING COUNTRIES OF BANANAS 10 YEARS ON - FOR COMPARISON

TABLE 4.1 RESPIRATION RATES FOR CERTAIN COMMODITIES

TABLE 4.2 ETHYLENE PRODUCTION RATES OF CERTAIN COMMODITIES

TABLE 4.3 AVERAGE HALF COOLING TIMES OF PALLETIZED CARTONS

TABLE 5.1 ANALYSIS OF 20/40ft INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY COUNTRY AND OWNERSHIP

TABLE 5.2 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY CLADDING AND REGION

TABLE 5.3 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY AGE AND REGION

TABLE 5.4 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY AGE AND CLADDING

TABLE 5.5 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY LENGTH AND CLADDING

TABLE 5.6 WORLD FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER INSULATED CONTAINERS BY LENGTH

TABLE 5.7 CHANGES IN WORLD TEU FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER/INSULATED CONTAINERS BY LENGTH/HEIGHT FOR PERIOD 1996-97

TABLE 5.8 CHANGES IN WORLD TEU FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER/INSULATED CONTAINERS BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION FOR PERIOD 1996-97

TABLE 5.9 WORLD TEU FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER/INSULATED CONTAINERS BY LENGTH/HEIGHT AND OWNER

TABLE 6.1 PLUG TYPES AND THEIR MOST COMMON LOCATIONS

TABLE 7.1 RELATIVE INITIAL COST OF SOME TYPES OF HANDLING EQUIPMENT

TABLE 7.2 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTAINER HANDLING EQUIPMENT

TABLE 8.1 REEFER FLEETS BY FLAG AND YEAR OF BUILD

TABLE 8.2 CONTAINERSHIPS OF 100 TEU REEFER SLOTS OR OVER

TABLE 8.3 ESTIMATED BREAKDOWN OF CIF COSTS IN SELECTED BANANA TRADES, 1981

TABLE 8.4 REEFER CONTAINER CAPACITY – AN ORDER AT END 1996

TABLE 8.5 CONTAINER FLEET REFRIGERATION – CONTAINER CAPACITY BY SIZE RANGE 1993 & 1996 – (FULLY AND SEMI-CELLULAR VESSELS/’000 TEU)

TABLE 8.6 THE CONVENTIONAL REEFER FLEET-CAPACITY, TEU AND NUMBER OF VESSELS, END 1996

TABLE 8.7 THE CONVENTIONAL REEFER FLEET-CAPACITY, TEU AND VESSEL NUMBER BY SIZE AND AGE STRUCTURE, END 1996

TABLE 9.1 LATEST PHASE-OUT SCHEDULE AGREED IN 9TH MEETING OF PARTIES, MONTREAL 15-17 SEPTEMBER 1997

TABLE 10.1 THE BANANA'S CONTRIBUTION TO DAILY MINERAL AND VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS

TABLE 10.2 BANANAS COMPARED WITH OTHER FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

TABLE 10.3 COMPARISON OF WORLD IMPORTS AND BANANA PRICES

TABLE 10.4 TRENDS IN YIELD PER HECTARE

TABLE 10.5 BANANA IMPORTS INTO EASTERN EUROPE

TABLE 10.6 BANANA WORLD PRODUCTION 1981-94

TABLE 10.7 BANANAS: COMPARISON OF PRIMARY PROCEDURES AND EXPORTERS 1981-94

TABLE 11.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF CHLORINE-FREE ALTERNATIVES

Title: Refrigerated Transportation, 2nd Edition
Edition: Second
Number of Pages: 151
Product Code: 4400w055
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-185-5 (9781856091855), ISBN 10: 1-85609-185-6 (1856091856)
Published Date: August 1999
Binding Format: Paperback
Book Height: 230 mm
Weight: 0.70 kg
Author: J Sinclair

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