Tanker Safety Training (Liquefied Gas) (eBook)

Published Date

January 2007


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Tanker Safety Training (Liquefied Gas) (eBook)

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This book gives senior ship’s officers, tanker terminal personnel and selected management staff an understanding of the principles involved in the safe loading, transportation and discharging of liquefied gases. With over 200 graphical images, line drawings and photographs, it covers both theoretical and practical aspects of ship operations, with the objective of ensuring the safety and health of personnel.

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Substantial work has been undertaken to ensure that the basics of liquefied gas carriage at sea can be understood by every reader, regardless of their experience to date.

In addition to coverage of course requirements, the text provides additional information, particularly in the important areas of cargo calculation and operational procedure.

For absolute clarity, and to highlight the different practices in the LNG and LPG trades, certain operations have been shown separately.

This book is a joint publication from Seamanship International and Witherbys Publishing

Chapter 1 The Gases and Their Properties 
1.1 Introduction 
1.1.1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) 
1.1.2 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 
1.1.3 Liquefied Chemical Gases 
1.2 Chemical Properties of the Gases 
1.2.1 Alkanes 
1.2.2 Alkenes and Alkynes 
1.2.3 Alkenes 
1.2.4 Alkynes 
1.3 Physical Properties of the Gases 
1.4 States of Matter 
1.5 Gases – Properties and Rules 
1.6 First Stage – Gas to Liquid 
1.6.1 Gases and Vapours 
1.6.2 Saturated Vapour Pressure 
1.6.3 Liquid and Vapour Densities 
1.6.4 Effect of Pressure on Containment 
1.6.5 Refrigeration 
1.6.6 Lubrication and Viscosity 
1.7 What are the Gases Carried on Liquefied Gas Carriers Used For?
1.7.1 LNG (Methane/Ethane) (CH4 / C2H6) 
1.7.2 Propane (C3H8) 
1.7.3 Butane (C4H10) 
1.7.4 Ethylene (C2H4) 
1.7.5 Propylene (C3H6) 
1.7.6 Butylene (C4H8) 
1.7.7 Butadiene (C4H6) 
1.7.8 Vinyl Chloride Monomer /VCM (CH2) 
1.7.9 Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) 
1.7.10 Chlorine (Cl) 

Chapter 2 Potential Hazards 
2.1 Health Hazards 
2.1.1 Respiration 
2.1.2 Toxicity 
2.1.3 Exposure and Short Term Exposure Limits for Gases 
2.1.4 Medical Treatment 
2.1.5 Symptoms of Asphyxia 
2.2 Flammability and Explosion 
2.2.1 Explosion 
2.2.2 Flammable Range 
2.2.3 Flashpoint 
2.2.4 Auto-ignition 
2.2.5 Fire Triangle – Advanced 
2.2.6 Vapour Cloud 
2.3 O2 Concentration and Inerting 
2.3.1 Effect of Reducing the O2 Content 
2.3.2 Reducing the Hydrocarbon Gas (% Gas) Levels in a Tank 
2.3.3 Summary of Gas Freeing 
2.4 Sources of Ignition 
2.4.1 Smoking 
2.4.2 Hot and Cold Work 
2.4.3 Non-Sparking Tools 
2.4.4 Static Electricity 
2.4.5 Bonding 

Chapter 3 Ship Characteristics and Cargo Containment 
3.1 Principles of Gas Carrier Design and Construction 
3.2 Cargo Containment Systems 
3.2.1 Independent Tank Types 
3.2.2 Membrane Tank Types 
3.3 Materials of Construction 
3.3.1 Insulation 
3.4 Hold Spaces 
3.4.1 Bursting Disc 
3.5 Liquefied Gas Carriers - Ship Types 
3.5.1 Profile of the World Gas Fleet 
3.5.2 Gas Carrier Types 
3.6 General Gas Carrier Layout 
3.6.1 General layout of the Deck Piping on a Fully Refrigerated LPG/Carrier    
3.7 Categorisation of Gas Ship Types 
3.8 Surveys and Certification 

Chapter 4 Regulations and Codes of Practice Governing Gas Carriers 
4.1 The IMO Codes for Liquefied Gas Tankers 
4.1.1 Background 
4.1.2 The International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ship Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code)
4.2 International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS '74) 
4.3 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL '73) 
4.4 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
4.5 Inter-Industry Organisations 
4.5.1 International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) 
4.5.2 Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) 
4.5.3 Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminal Owners (SIGTTO) 
4.6 The Classification Societies 

Chapter 5 Cargo Handling Systems 
5.1 Cargo Piping, Pumping and Valves 
5.1.1 Cargo Tank Piping 
5.1.2 Emergency Shutdown System 'ESDS' 
5.1.3 Pressure surge 
5.2 Pressure Relief Valves 
5.2.1 Pilot-operated Relief Valves 
5.2.2 Spring-Loaded Relief Valves 
5.2.3 Vent Arrangements 
5.3 Cargo Pumps 
5.3.1 Pump Performance Curves 
5.3.2 Running Pumps in Parallel and in Series 
5.3.3 Deepwell Pumps 
5.3.4 Submerged Pumps 
5.3.5 Booster Pumps 
5.3.6 Cargo Heater 
5.3.7 Cargo Vapouriser 
5.4 LPG Reliquefaction Plant 
5.4.1 Reliquefaction Plant 
5.4.2 Single Stage Direct Cycle 
5.4.3 Two Stage Direct Cycle 
5.4.4 Cascade Direct Cycle 
5.4.5 Cargo Compressors 
5.4.6 Compressor Suction Liquid Separator 
5.4.7 Purge Gas Condenser 
5.4.8 Starting a Reliquefaction plant (Cascade Cycle) 
5.4.9 Methanol Injection System 
5.4.10 Hazards of Methanol 
5.5 LNG Boil-Off and Vapour Handling Systems 
5.6 Inert Gas Systems 
5.6.1 Inert Gas (Nitrogen) Absorption System 
5.6.2 Inert Gas Produced by Combustion of Gas Oil 
5.7 Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas 
5.7.1 Intrinsically Safe Equipment 
5.7.2 Flameproof Equipment 
5.7.3 Pressurised or Purged Equipment 
5.7.4 Increased Safety Equipment 
5.8 Instrumentation 
5.8.1 Liquid Level 
5.8.2 Float Gauges 
5.8.3 Nitrogen Bubbler Gauge 
5.8.4 Differential Pressure Gauge 
5.8.5 Capacitance Gauge 
5.8.6 Ultrasonic Gauge 
5.8.7 Tank Radar Gauge 
5.8.8 Slip Tubes 
5.8.9 High Level Alarms 
5.8.10 Emergency Shutdown System 
5.8.11 Pressure and Temperature Monitoring 
5.8.12 Vapour Detection Systems 
5.8.13 Custody Transfer System 

Chapter 6 LPG Operations 
6.1 Drying 
6.1.1 Older Methods of Drying Tanks 
6.1.2 Current Drying Methods 
6.2 Inerting 
6.2.1 Inerting the Cargo System 
6.2.2 Inerting by Displacement 
6.2.3 Inerting by Dilution 
6.3 Gassing Up 
6.3.1 Gassing up at Sea using Liquid from Deck Storage Tanks 
6.3.2 Gassing up Alongside
6.4 Cool-down
6.5 Loading 
6.5.1 Tank Filling Level 
6.5.2 Topping off tanks 
6.5.3 Operation of the Reliquefaction Plant 
6.5.4 Sampling 
6.6 Loaded Passage 
6.7 Discharge 
6.7.1 Discharge by Deepwell or Submersible Pumps 
6.7.2 Discharge Using Booster Pumps and Cargo Heater 
6.7.3 Discharge by Vapour Pressure 
6.8 Ballast Passage 
6.9 Changing Grades/Gas Freeing 
6.9.1 Liquid Freeing 
6.9.2 Purging 
6.9.3 Water Washing after Ammonia Cargoes 
6.10 Aeration of Cargo Tanks 
6.11 Important Points When Changing LPG Cargoes 
6.11.1 From Ammonia to LPG: 
6.11.2 From LPG to Ammonia: 
6.11.3 To Change Between: Butane, Butene, Butadiene, Propane, Propene:       
6.11.4 Previous Butadiene cargo
6.11.5 From Butane to Propane or vice versa
6.12 Tank Cleaning Table Liquefied Gas

Chapter 7 LNG Operations 
7.1 Typical Trading Cycle for a Modern LNG Carrier 
7.2 Nitrogen Purging of the Insulation Space 
7.3 Drying of Cargo Tanks 
7.4 Inerting Cargo Tanks 
7.5 Gassing up Cargo Tanks 
7.6 Cooling down of the cargo tanks 
7.7 Loading 
7.8 Loaded Passage 
7.9 LNG Unloading (Discharge) 
7.10 Ballast Voyage – In service – Return to Load Port 
7.11 Stripping (at discharge port prior to gas freeing) 
7.12 Warming up the Cargo Tanks 
7.13 Inerting of the Cargo Tanks 
7.14 Aeration of the Cargo Tanks 

Chapter 8 Cargo Calculations 
8.1 Principle 
8.2 Weight or Mass 
8.3 Density 
8.3.1 US System of stating density 
8.3.2 Conversion between units 
8.4 Temperature 
8.5 Pressure 
8.6 ASTM Tables 
8.7 Total Weight of Liquid Cargo 
8.7.1 Pure Products 
8.7.2 Mixed Products 
8.8 Total Weight of Vapour Cargo 
8.8.1 Pure Products 
8.8.2 Mixed Products 
8.8.3 Step-by-step calculation for both LPG and LNG cargoes 
8.9 Discharging Calculations 
8.9.1 Full Discharge 
8.9.2 Part Cargoes 
8.10 Cargo Calculation Form 
8.10.1 Ammonia Survey before Load 
8.10.2 Ammonia Survey after Load 
8.10.3 Propane Survey before Load 
8.10.4 Propane Survey after Load 

Chapter 9 Terminal Operations 
9.1 The Ship/Shore Interface 
9.2 Communications 
9.3 Pre-Arrival 
9.3.1 Operational Equipment 
9.3.2 Navigational Equipment 
9.3.3 Berthing Requirements 
9.3.4 Mooring 
9.3.5 Cargo Transfer Equipment 
9.4 General Precautions While the Ship is at Berth 
9.4.1 Operational Limits 
9.4.2 Summary of Safety Precautions Alongside the Berth 
9.4.3 Moorings 
9.4.4 Access and Security 
9.4.5 Immobilisation of Main Engines 
9.4.6 Supervision 
9.4.7 The Cargo Transfer Meeting 
9.4.8 Ship-Shore Safety Check Lists 
9.4.9 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 
9.4.10 Fire-fighting Equipment 
9.4.11 Connecting and Disconnecting Hose/Hard Arms 
9.4.12 Disconnecting Hoses/Hard Arms 
9.4.13 Checking Ship's Tank Atmosphere 
9.5 Cargo Handling 
9.5.1 Cargo Loading 
9.5.2 Cargo Discharge 
9.5.3 Loading from Pressurised Storage into a Refrigerated Ship 
9.5.4 Discharging Refrigerated Cargo into Pressurised Storage 
9.6 Cargo Vapour Handling 
9.6.1 Pressure Surges 
9.6.2 Rollover 
9.7 Additional Procedures 
9.7.1 Ship Work Permit, Chipping and Use of Power Tools 
9.7.2 Terminal Work when Ship Alongside 
9.7.3 Other Craft 
9.7.4 Protective Equipment and Protective Clothing 
9.7.5 Non-Cargo Spaces 
9.7.6 Remote Control Valves 
9.7.7 Safety Relief Valves 
9.7.8 Working Pressures 
9.7.9 Reliquefaction 
9.7.10 Venting to Atmosphere 
9.7.11 Vapour Return Line 
9.7.12 Port Information Booklet 
9.8 Ship / Shore Safety Check List 

Chapter 10 Safe Practices and Safety Equipment 
10.1 Atmosphere Evaluation 
10.1.1 Oxygen Analysers 
10.1.2 Combustible Gas Indicator (Explosimeter) 
10.1.3 Hydrocarbon Meter (Tankscope) 
10.1.4 Toxic Meters for Trace Gases 
10.2 Entry into Enclosed Spaces 
10.3 Personnel Protection 
10.3.1 Filter or Canister Respirator 
10.3.2 Fresh Air Respirator 
10.3.3 Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus 
10.3.4 Oxygen Resuscitators 
10.3.5 Protective Clothing in the Presence of Cargo 

Chapter 11 Emergency Procedures 
11.1 The Principal Hazards 
11.1.1 Flammability and Explosion 
11.1.2 Toxicity and Toxic Products of Combustion 
11.1.3 Loss of Visibility from a Vapour Cloud 
11.1.4 Cold Burns 
11.1.5 Brittle Fractures 
11.2 Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing 
11.2.1 Fire Detection 
11.2.2 Liquefied Gas Fires 
11.2.3 Liquefied Gas Fire Fighting 
11.3 Emergency Procedures 
11.3.1 Ship's Emergency Preparedness 
11.3.2 Emergency Shutdown System (ESDS) 
11.3.3 Emergency Disconnection of 'Chiksan' Arms 
11.3.4 Emergency Procedures and External Resources 
11.3.5 Raising the Alarm and Control of Operations 
11.3.6 Control of Ship Movements 
11.3.7 Loading and Discharging 
11.3.8 Fire Fighting Operations 
11.3.9 Emergency Situations 
11.3.10 Emergency Shutdown 
11.4 Specific Emergency Plans (Ship alongside Jetty) 
11.5 Emergency Procedures on Gas Carriers 
11.5.1 Examples of Emergency Procedures 

Chapter 12 Case Studies 

Title: Tanker Safety Training (Liquefied Gas) (eBook)
Number of Pages: 312
Product Code: WS1014EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-341-5 (9781856093415), ISBN 10: 1-85609-341-7 (1856093417)
Published Date: January 2007

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