Anchoring Systems and Procedures

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Published Date

October 2010

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Anchoring Systems and Procedures

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This publication provides recommendations and guidance to promote the safe operation and satisfactory performance of anchoring systems.

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As background to the development of this revised publication; concerns had been expressed, by OCIMF member companies and others, about an increase in the number of incidents involving anchor losses, windlass motor failures and associated personnel injuries. A review of third party anchoring incidents by an OCIMF member highlighted the following various issues. As a result of the review, it was agreed to revise and update the information contained in the original 1982 publication to assist in promulgating the lessons learnt from incidents, to provide improved information on anchoring practices and to recognise advances made in anchor systems in the intervening years. In particular, this publication highlights the design capabilities and limitations of anchoring systems and equipment with the aim of enhancing the safety of operations.

The scope of this publication addresses anchoring systems and procedures that are applicable to all vessel types, irrespective of their size.



List of Figures
List of Tables
Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations
Purpose and Scope

Section 2
Issues Associated with Anchoring Systems and Procedures

Section 3
General Description of Anchoring Systems

3.1 Anchoring System
3.1.1 Basic Equipment Arrangement
3.1.2 Safety Aspects
3.1.3 Limitations of the Anchoring System
3.2 Anchors
3.3 Chain Cable
3.4 Hawse Pipe
3.5 Anchor Lashing
3.6 Chain Stopper
3.7 Windlass
3.7.1 General
3.7.2 Cable Lifter
3.7.3 Windlass Gears and Clutches
3.7.4 Stripper Bar
3.7.5 Windlass Brake Systems Band Brake Disc Brake Brake Drum and Disc Material Hydraulically Assisted Brakes
3.8 Drive Units
3.8.1 High Pressure Hydraulic Systems Protection Against Catastrophic Failure
3.8.2 Low Pressure Hydraulic Systems
3.8.3 Electric Systems Frequency Controlled Pole Changing
3.8.4 Steam
3.9 Windlass Control Systems
3.9.1 Remote Control
3.9.2 Chain Counters
3.10 Spurling Pipe and Chain Locker

Section 4

Design Considerations
4.1 Design Standard
4.2 Design Philosophy of Anchoring Equipment
4.3 Environmental Forces Acting on a Ship at Anchor
4.4 Anchors
4.4.1 Anchor Construction
4.4.2 Types of Anchor and Stowage
4.4.3 Holding Power of Anchors
4.5 Chain Cable
4.5.1 Length of Chain Cable
4.5.2 Material
4.5.3 Cable Strength
4.5.4 Bitter End
4.6 Chain Stopper
4.7 Windlass
4.7.1 Drive Units for Windlasses
4.8 Testing of Anchor Equipment and Systems
4.8.1 Anchor
4.8.2 Chain Cable
4.8.3 Windlass
4.8.4 Sea Trials
4.9 Interface Between Ship Structure and Anchoring Equipment
4.10 Arrangement of Equipment
4.10.1 Anchor Stowage and Hawse Pipe
4.10.2 Chain Lockers and Spurling Pipes
4.10.3 Access, Safety and Security
4.11 Additional Equipment
4.11.1 Cable Tension Monitoring System
4.11.2 Chain Counters and Speed Measurement
4.11.3 Remote Control Options
4.11.4 CCTV Monitoring Systems

Section 5
Operational Procedures

5.1 Anchoring Procedures
5.1.1 General
5.1.2 Preparation for Anchoring
5.1.3 Methods of Anchoring
5.1.4 Commonly Used Anchoring Procedures
5.1.5 Conventional Buoy Moorings
5.2 Maintaining an Anchor Watch
5.2.1 Watchkeeping Responsibilities
5.2.2 Securing the Cable at Anchor
5.3 Getting Underway
5.3.1 Avoiding Damage to the Anchor System
5.3.2 Emergency Recovery of Anchor and Cable
5.4 Use of Anchors in an Emergency

Section 6
Maintenance Issues

6.1 Routine Maintenance
6.1.1 Inspection
6.1.2 Lubrication
6.1.3 Flexible Hoses
6.1.4 Windlass Components
6.1.5 Windlass Drum Brakes
6.1.6 Chain Stopper
6.1.7 Chain Cable
6.2 Surveys and Inspections During Refit
6.2.1 Class Survey Procedures
6.2.2 Ranging and Inspection of Cable
6.2.3 Kenter Shackle
6.2.4 ‘D’ Shackle
6.2.5 Anchor Swivels
6.2.6 Anchors
6.2.7 Brakes

A An Example of Typical Planned Maintenance Activities
B An Example of Typical Refit Inspection, Survey and Maintenance Activities
C Example Certification for Anchor Chain Cable and Chain Cable Fittings

OCIMF was formed in April 1970 in response to the growing public concern about marine pollution, particularly by oil, after the Torrey Canyon incident in 1967. In the early 1970s, a variety of anti-pollution initiatives were starting to emerge nationally, regionally and internationally, but with little coordination. Through OCIMF, the oil industry was able to play a stronger, coordinating role in response to these initiatives, making its professional expertise widely available through cooperation with governments and intergovernmental bodies.

OCIMF was granted consultative status at the IMO in 1971 and continues to present oil industry views at IMO meetings. Since then, its role has broadened to take account the changing maritime activities of its membership. Its remit now covers tankers, barges, offshore support vessels and terminals and its advice extends to issues like shipping in ice and large-scale piracy, which rarely troubled the oil industry when OCIMF was first created in the 1970s.

The current membership of OCIMF comprises 112 companies worldwide.

Today, OCIMF is widely recognised as the voice of the oil industry providing expertise in the safe and environmentally responsible transport and handling of hydrocarbons in ships and terminals and setting standards for continuous improvement. Membership is extensive and includes every oil major in the world along with the majority of National Oil Companies.

OCIMF has much to be proud of. Not only has it contributed to a substantial quantity of regulation at the IMO aimed at improving the safety of tankers and protecting the environment, but it has introduced important new guidance on pressing current issues such as piracy and Arctic shipping. With the process of introducing new Internationally-accepted regulation necessarily slow as it crosses many individual countries and jurisdictions, OCIMF is in the unique position of being able to leverage the expertise of its membership to press ahead with much needed guidance on important industry issues. This provides the means to improve practices in the membership and in the wider industry, and serves as a valuable reference for developing regulation.

Title: Anchoring Systems and Procedures
Number of Pages: 86
Product Code: WS1256K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-404-7 (9781856094047), ISBN 10: 1-85609-404-9 (1856094049)
Published Date: October 2010
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 304 mm
Book Width: 214 mm
Book Spine: 9 mm
Weight: 0.70 kg
Author: Oil Companies International Marine Forum

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