Ballast Water Management: Understanding the regulations and the treatment technologies available, 9th Edition.  (eBook)

Published Date

November 2018

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Ballast Water Management: Understanding the regulations and the treatment technologies available, 9th Edition. (eBook)

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Updated to MEPC 73 (October 2018)

This 9th edition of 'Ballast Water Management' has been fully updated to reflect the recent entry into force of the BWM Convention. Providing up-to-date information on the current state of international and national ballast water legislation, it contains essential information on the requirements for compliance and the treatment options available. It also includes data sheets for both IMO and USCG Type Approved BWMS (both G8 and G9) that are currently available on the market.



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The Ballast Water Management Convention entered into force on 8th September 2017.


Whether you already have a Ballast Water system implementation plan or not, this full and comprehensive guide will provide the information on the regulations and equipment options available that you need to make the transition to full compliance



List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

PART ONE – Introduction and Background

CHAPTER ONE – The Issue in Recent Years

CHAPTER TWO – The Ship as a Carrier

2.1 Biofouling

2.2 Aquatic Species

2.3 Pathogens

2.4 Age of Ballast Water

2.5 Ballast Tank Configuration

PART TWO – Risk Management – Ballast Water Exchange is the First Measure

CHAPTER THREE – Ballast Water Exchange (BWE)

3.1 Ballast Water Exchange Operational Considerations

3.1.1 Geographic Location Requirements

3.1.2 Exchange Zones

3.1.3 Satellite Remote Colour Sensing

3.1.4 Salinity and Temperature

3.1.5 Time Required

3.1.6 Deviation

3.1.7 Need for Exchange

3.1.8 Safety Implications

3.2 Sequential Exchange Method

3.3 Flow Through Exchange Method

3.4 Ship Design and Ballasting

3.4.1 Natural Ballast Water Exchange Method

3.4.2 The Ballastless Ship

3.4.3 No Ballast On Board (NOBOB) Ships

3.4.4 Simple Design Solutions to Limit Sediment

3.5 BWM Options Summary

3.6 Ballast Operations Checklists

PART THREE – Regulations

CHAPTER FOUR – Ballast Water Management Legislation

CHAPTER FIVE – IMO Legislation

5.1 Legislation from the International Maritime Organization

5.1.1 Application of the BWM Convention

5.1.2 The IMO Approval Process

5.1.3 Historical Problems

5.1.4 Pertinent MEPC Discussions

CHAPTER SIX – United States Legislation

6.1 The US Coast Guard

6.1.1 USCG Discharge Standards for Concentration of Living Organisms in Ballast Water

6.1.2 USCG Final Rule Implementation Dates

6.1.3 USCG Extensions

6.1.4 Approval and AMS Acceptance

6.1.5 USCG Type Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems

6.1.6 The Shipboard Technology Evaluation Program (STEP)

6.1.7 The ETV (Environmental Technology Verification) Program

6.2 Environmental Protection Agency

6.3 State Legislation

6.3.1 Examples of US State Requirements that are, or plan to be, more Stringent than Phase 1 of USCG Requirements

6.3.2 States that have Aligned with Phase 1 of the USCG Standards

6.4 Summary of US Legislation

CHAPTER SEVEN – Local and Regional BW Regulations

CHAPTER EIGHT – The Financial Implications of BWM Legislation

8.1 Cost of Ballast Water Exchange

8.1.1 Enforcement Costs

8.2 Cost of Ballast Water Management Systems

8.2.1 Port-Based Treatment

PART FOUR – Implementation of Regulations

CHAPTER NINE – The Port State Authority

CHAPTER TEN – Ship Administration of BWM

10.1 The Ballast Water Management Plan

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Ship Particulars

10.1.3 Index

10.1.4 Purpose

10.1.5 Plans/Drawings and Description of the Ballast System

10.1.6 Additional Details

10.1.7 Safety Procedures for the Ship and the Crew

10.1.8 Duties of the Ballast Water Management Officer

10.2 Ballast Water Record Book

10.3 Surveys

10.3.1 Initial Survey

10.3.2 Intermediate Survey

10.3.3 Annual Survey

10.3.4 Renewal Survey

10.4 Certification

10.5 Ballast Water Reporting

10.5.1 Online Reports

10.5.2 Fax Reports

10.5.3 Postal/Mail-in Reports

10.6 Training

10.6.1 Support Level

10.6.2 Operational Level

10.6.3 Management Level

CHAPTER ELEVEN – Port States and Port State Control (PSC)

11.1 Existing Conditions

11.2 Notification

11.3 Inspection, Monitoring and Enforcement

11.3.1 IMO PSC Guidelines

CHAPTER TWELVE – Ballast Water Sampling/Monitoring

12.1 Monitoring Capability

12.2 Arrival Ballast Conditions

12.3 Monitoring Levels

12.3.1 Level 1 Monitoring/Sampling

12.3.2 Level 2 Monitoring/Sampling

12.3.3 Level 3 Monitoring/Sampling

12.4 Post-Treatment Monitoring

12.5 Sampling

12.5.1 Sampling Issues

12.5.2 Protective Equipment

12.6 Sediment

12.7 Test Methods

12.7.1 Colourimetric Test

12.7.2 Amperometry

12.7.3 Immunofluorescence

12.7.4 Flow Cytometry

12.8 Monitoring that Requires Tank Entry

12.9 Practical Considerations for Compliance with the D-2 Standards

CHAPTER THIRTEEN – Deposit and Exchange Facilities

13.1 Reception Facilities

13.1.1 Facility to Receive/Treat Ballast Water at Port

13.1.2 Sediment Reception Facility

PART FIVE – Regulatory Guidance

CHAPTER FOURTEEN – IMO Guidance on Ballasting


PART SIX – Treatment Systems and Operation

CHAPTER SIXTEEN – Introduction to Treatment Technologies

16.1 Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) Requirements

16.2 Technical Installation Issues

16.3 Retrofit Assistance

16.4 The Evolution of Ballast Water Management Systems

16.4.1 Ownership Changes

16.4.2 Cooperation within the Industry

16.4.3 BWMS Approvals (IMO and USCG)

16.4.4 BWMS Upgrades

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN – Physical Separation, Thermal, Ultraviolet and Plasma Technologies

17.1 Physical Separation

17.1.1 The Hydrocyclone

17.1.2 Screen Filtration

17.1.3 Disc Filtration

17.1.4 Limitations and Advantages of Physical Separation

17.2 Heat Treatment Technology

17.2.1 Limitations and Advantages of Heat Treatment Technology

17.3 Ultraviolet Radiation/Advanced Oxidation Technology

17.3.1 Limitations and Advantages of UV Radiation Technology

17.4 Plasma Technology

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN – Deoxygenation, Magnetic and Ultrasonic/Cavitation Technologies

18.1 Deoxygenation/Supersaturation Technology

18.1.1 Limitations and Advantages of Deoxygenation Technology

18.2 Magnetic/Electric Fields Technology

18.3 Ultrasonic and Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technology

18.3.1 Ultrasonic Technology

18.3.2 Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technology

CHAPTER NINETEEN – Chemical, Biocide and Electrochemical Technologies

19.1 Chemical and Biocide Technology

19.1.1 Limitations and Advantages of Chemical and Biocide Technology

19.1.2 Types of Biocide

19.1.3 Oxidising Biocide Residues

19.1.4 Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl)

19.1.5 Peroxygen Compounds

19.1.6 Ozone (O3)

19.1.7 Glutaraldehyde

19.1.8 Menadione

19.1.9 Acrolein

19.1.10 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

19.2 Electrochemical Technology

PART SEVEN – Components and Data Sheets

CHAPTER TWENTY – Filter Components used in the Assembly of a BWMS

20.1 Screen Filtration

20.1.1 The BOLLFILTER Automatic Filter Type 6.18.3C

20.1.2 Filtrex ACB® Filters

20.1.3 The Filtersafe® BS-Series Filters

20.1.4 The Krone Filter KAF Bernoulli Filters

20.1.5 MossHydro Filters

20.1.6 HYDAC Filters

20.1.7 Amiad Omega Series Filters

20.2 Disc Filtration

20.2.1 The Spin Klin® Automatic Disc Filter

CHAPTER TWENTY ONE – BW Systems with No Active Substances (G8)

21.1 Ultraviolet and Filter Systems

21.2 Ultraviolet and Pressure Vacuum Systems

21.3 UV Systems

21.4 Filtration Systems

21.5 Deoxygenation with Inert Gas

CHAPTER TWENTY TWO – BW Systems using Active Substances (G9)

22.1 Chemical Biocide Systems

22.2 Electrolysis Systems

22.3 Ozone Systems

22.4 Advanced Oxidation Systems

22.5 Ultraviolet and Plasma Systems

22.6 Unconventional BWMS

CHAPTER TWENTY THREE – Status of Systems


1 Key Invasive Species

1.1 The European Green Crab (Carcinus maenas)

1.2 Asian Kelp (Undaria pinnatifida) also known as Wakame

1.3 Fishhook Water Flea (Cercopagis pengoi)

1.4 Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) also known as the Shanghai Hairy Crab

1.5 Northern Pacific Sea Star (Asterias amurensis) also known as the Flatbottom Sea Star

1.6 Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

1.7 Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus)

1.8 North American Comb Jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi)

1.9 Toxic Algae (Producing Harmful Algal Blooms) (various species)

2 Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) (various strains)


Author’s References


Every day, on every ship at sea, in addition to the cargo, millions of marine organisms are also transported within the ballast water, having been taken on board when the ballast water was loaded. Globally, it has been estimated that, each day, ships’ ballast water is transporting >10,000 marine species including living organisms and pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, which are discharged with the ballast water when the ships reach their destination.

Captain Nadeem Anwar graduated from the Pakistan Marine Academy in December 1983 and in 1984, went into shipping as a deck cadet on multi-purpose ships. In 1990, he started working on oil tankers and OBO’s. In 1994, he returned to Fleetwood and acquired a Chief Mates Certificate of Competency. He was promoted to Chief Officer in 1994 and continued to serve on VLCC, OBO, O/O, Gas and Chemical Tankers. He achieved his Master Certificate of Competency from MCA UK in early 1998 and went back to sea in command of VLCCs. His time at sea was mainly spent in deep-sea trade, which gave him a wide-ranging experience of navigating in different areas of the world.

In October 1998, he joined the Fleetwood Nautical Campus as a lecturer. In 2003, he became its Curriculum Manager. In 2005, he achieved a MSc in Maritime Operations with a Distinction (through LJMU) and an Advanced diploma in Insurance (through the Chartered Insurance Institute).

Captain Anwar has developed training courses and written a range of training materials. He also provides consultancy services to marine training providers and shipping companies.

Title: Ballast Water Management: Understanding the regulations and the treatment technologies available, 9th Edition. (eBook)
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: Ninth
Product Code: WS1657EA
Published Date: November 2018
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 280 mm
Book Width: 220 mm
Book Spine: 30 mm
Author: Nadeem Anwar

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