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Published Date

January 1981

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Disabled Tankers - Report of Studies on Ship Drift & Towage

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This book provides the Master of a disabled tankers with information about the most probable drift behaviour of their ship.

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The research underpinning the book was initiated by a group of OCIMF member companies, the American Institute of Merchant Shipping (AIMS) and the International Salvage Union (ISU). The British National Maritime Institute (NMI) was commissioned to carry out intensive model testing with free floating and tethered models that was validated with full scale drift data obtained from a number of vessels, predominantly VLCC's but also some smaller tankers.

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose of Investigation

1.2 Details of Models

1.3 Synopsis of Experiments and Computations

2. Experiments with Free Models

2.1 Description of Experimental Method

2.2 Calculation Wind Forces and Moments

2.3 Arrangement of Test Series

2.4 Results: Twin-Screw Model 5481

2.4.1 Free-Drift Experiments

2.4.2 Manoeuvring with Limited Power Available

2.4.3 Manoeuvring with Rudders Flying Free

2.5 Results: Bulbuos-Bow Model 5480A

2.5.1 Free-Drift Experiments

2.5.2 Manoeuvring with Limited Power Available

2.5.3 Manoeuvring with Rudder Flying Free

2.5.4 Effect of Heel with Power Available

2.5.5 Force to Move Model out of Trough

2.5.6 Wind and Waves from Different Directions

2.6 Results: Rounded Bow Model 5480B

2.6.1 Free-Drift Experiments

2.6.2 Manoeuvring with Limited Power Available

2.6.3 Manoeuvring with Rudder Flying Free

2.6.4 Effect of Heel with Power Available

2.6.5 Force to Move Model out of Trough

2.6.6 Wind and Waves from Different Directions

2.7 A Note of Coriolis Effects

2.8 Summary of Main Conclusions

2.8.1 Free-Drift

2.8.2 Controlled Drift

2.8.3 Towing Forces to Head into Weather

3. Measurements of Drift Forces in Waves

3.1 Experiment Arrangement

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Programme of Tests

3.1.3 Sea-State Spectra

3.1.4 Mooring Arrangements

3.1.5 Force Measurements

3.1.6 Instrumentation

3.1.7 Conduct of the Tests

3.2 Results Obtained

3.2.1 Method of Presentation

3.2.2 Accuracy and Repeatability

3.2.3 Effect of Wave Encounter Angle

3.2.4 Effect of Seastate

3.2.5 Effect of Rudder

3.2.6 Effect of Hull Shape

3.2.7 Effect of Trim

3.3 Conclusion

4. Calculations of Drift Forces in Waves

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Method of Calculation

4.3 Ship Models

4.3.1 Model 5480B

4.3.2 Modified Model with L/B=4.5

4.3.3 Natural Periods

4.4 Spectral Model

4.5 Numerical Models

4.6 Results

4.6.1 Regular Waves

4.6.2 Irregular Waves

4.7 Comments on Results

4.7.1 Regular Waves

4.7.2 Irregular Waves

4.8 Comparisons between Calculated and Measured Results

5. Conclusion

6. References

OCIMF was formed in April 1970 in response to the growing public concern about marine pollution, particularly by oil, after the Torrey Canyon incident in 1967. In the early 1970s, a variety of anti-pollution initiatives were starting to emerge nationally, regionally and internationally, but with little coordination. Through OCIMF, the oil industry was able to play a stronger, coordinating role in response to these initiatives, making its professional expertise widely available through cooperation with governments and intergovernmental bodies.

OCIMF was granted consultative status at the IMO in 1971 and continues to present oil industry views at IMO meetings. Since then, its role has broadened to take account the changing maritime activities of its membership. Its remit now covers tankers, barges, offshore support vessels and terminals and its advice extends to issues like shipping in ice and large-scale piracy, which rarely troubled the oil industry when OCIMF was first created in the 1970s.

The current membership of OCIMF comprises 112 companies worldwide.

Today, OCIMF is widely recognised as the voice of the oil industry providing expertise in the safe and environmentally responsible transport and handling of hydrocarbons in ships and terminals and setting standards for continuous improvement. Membership is extensive and includes every oil major in the world along with the majority of National Oil Companies.

OCIMF has much to be proud of. Not only has it contributed to a substantial quantity of regulation at the IMO aimed at improving the safety of tankers and protecting the environment, but it has introduced important new guidance on pressing current issues such as piracy and Arctic shipping. With the process of introducing new Internationally-accepted regulation necessarily slow as it crosses many individual countries and jurisdictions, OCIMF is in the unique position of being able to leverage the expertise of its membership to press ahead with much needed guidance on important industry issues. This provides the means to improve practices in the membership and in the wider industry, and serves as a valuable reference for developing regulation.

Title: Disabled Tankers - Report of Studies on Ship Drift & Towage
Number of Pages: 250
Product Code: 4400W009
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-0-900886-63-8 (9780900886638), ISBN 10: 0-900886-63-3 (0900886633)
Published Date: January 1981
Weight: 0.60 kg

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