Manual on Oil Pollution - Section IV: Combating Oil Spills, 2005 Edition (KA569E) (eBook)

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Published Date

May 2006

Manual on Oil Pollution - Section IV: Combating Oil Spills, 2005 Edition (KA569E) (eBook)

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This section of the Manual on Oil Pollution provides an overview of the effects of oil spills on the marine environment. It discusses situation evaluation, response options and cleanup methods, including containment and recovery, chemical dispersion, in situ burning, shoreline response and bioremediation. Guidance is also provided on training, exercises and equipment maintenance and storage.

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This manual draws on the experience and lessons learned by Governments and industry in responding to marine oil pollution. It provides useful information on preparation of national and/or regional systems for preparedness and response. The information is intended for Governments, particularly those of developing countries, and industry.

 

The manual discusses the behaviour and fate of different types of oil when spilled and the effects on marine and coastal resources. It looks at the various cleanup strategies and includes new chapters on burning in situ and bioremediation. Guidance is provided on training, exercises and equipment and there is also information on liability, compensation and cost accounting.

 

The revision of this section of the manual was undertaken by the Oil Pollution, Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC) Working Group and approved by IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee.

Chapter 1 Introduction

 

Chapter 2 Types of oil

2.1       Crude oils

2.2       Petroleum products

2.3       Persistent oils

 

Chapter 3 Fate of oil spills in the marine environment

3.1       Properties of oil

3.2       Natural weathering processes

3.3       Movement of oil slicks

3.4       Combined movement, weathering processes and modelling

 

Chapter 4 Effects of oil on marine and coastal resources

4.1       Introduction

4.2       Ecological effects

4.3       Recreational beaches and sea areas

4.4       Ports and marinas

4.5       Industrial installations

4.6       Fish

4.7       Marine mammals

4.8       Sea turtles

4.9       Marine birds

4.10     Coral communities and ecosystems

4.11     Wetland communities and ecosystems

4.12     Nature reserves and marine parks

 

Chapter 5 Situation evaluation and response options

5.1       Source identification and incident details

5.2       Prevention or reduction of further spillages

5.3       Aerial surveillance, including remote sensing

5.4       Assessment of the threat

5.5       Spill response options and their limitations

 

Chapter 6 Containment and recovery of oil

6.1       Introduction

6.2       Containment booms

6.3       Recovery devices – skimming equipment

6.4       Temporary storage

6.5       Integrated containment and recovery operations

6.6       Recovery of subsurface oil

6.7       Sorbents

 

Chapter 7 Chemical dispersion

7.1       Introduction

7.2       Dispersants

7.3       Application techniques

 

Chapter 8 In situ burning

8.1       Introduction

8.2       Features of in situ burning

8.3       Environmental and health considerations

8.4       Safety considerations

 

Chapter 9 Shoreline response

9.1       Introduction

9.2       Pre-spill contingency planning

9.3       Shoreline spill assessment

9.4       Shoreline cleanup methods

9.5       Managing shoreline response

9.6       Site restoration

9.7       Care of wildlife

 

Chapter 10 Bioremediation

10.1     Introduction

10.2     Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons

10.3     Bioremediation techniques

10.4     Opportunities for bioremediation

10.5     Contingency planning

 

Chapter 11 Management and disposal of oil and oily debris

11.1     Introduction

11.2     Types of collected material

11.3     On-site temporary storage and separation

11.4     Land transport

11.5     Waste treatment methods

11.6     Waste disposal methods

11.7     Reclamation of oil

11.8     Stabilization of oiled beach materials

11.9     Direct disposal

11.10   Incineration

11.11   Bioremediation

11.12   Dune disposal

 

Chapter 12 Spills of heavy fuel oils – features and countermeasures

12.1     Introduction

12.2     Characteristics of heavy fuel oils

12.3     Behaviour of heavy fuel oils when spills

12.4     Response strategies

 

Chapter 13 – Training, exercises, equipment maintenance and storage

13.1     Introduction

13.2     Training

13.3     Exercises

13.4     Equipment maintenance and storage

 

Chapter 14 Cleanup cost considerations

14.1     Introduction

14.2     Factors affecting response costs

14.3     Compensation for response costs

14.4     Record-keeping and claims handling

The Manual on Oil Pollution comprises six sections:

 

Section I – Prevention (out of print)

Section II – Contingency Planning (revised edition published 1995)

Section III – Salvage (revised edition published 1997)

Section IV – Combating Oil Spills (contained in this publication)

Section V – Administrative Aspects of Oil Pollution Response (published 1998)

Section VI – IMO Guidelines for Sampling and Identification of Oil Spills (published 1998)

 

This edition of Section IV draws on the experience and lessons learned by Governments and industry in responding to marine oil pollution worldwide during the last thirty years. It builds on earlier editions, first published in 1972 and revised in 1980 and 1988, and provides a clear and concise overview of the present level of knowledge, expertise and understanding in the field of oil spill response.

 

It covers the behaviour and fate of different types of oil when spilled and the effects on marine and coastal resources. Guidance is given on aerial surveillance, the at-sea measures of containment and recovery and the use of chemical dispersants, and a new chapter has been included on in situ burning. Shoreline clean-up strategies and techniques, and waste management and disposal are described, and a new chapter has been added on bioremediation measures. In view of the growing awareness of the difficulties inherent in dealing with spills of heavy fuel oil and emulsified fuels, a new, separate chapter has been devoted to the current state of knowledge and experience in dealing with them. Guidance is provided on training, exercises and equipment maintenance and storage, and information is also given on liability, compensation and cost accounting.

 

In 1990 the International Convention on Oil Pollution, Preparedness, Response and Co-operation was adopted by IMO. This Convention calls on Contracting States, amongst other things, to co-operate and to exchange information on matters related to response to oil pollution incidents. This section of the Manual provides useful information with regard to the preparation of national and/or regional systems for preparedness and response. The information is intended for Governments, particularly those of developing countries, and industry, on the most appropriate means of dealing with marine oil spills.

 

The revision of this section of the Manual on Oil Pollution was undertaken by the Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC) Working Group and approved by the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO.

A​​s a specialized agency of the United Nations, IMO is the global standard-setting authority for the safety, security and environmental performance of international shipping. Its main role is to create a regulatory framework for the shipping industry that is fair and effective, universally adopted and universally implemented.  

In other words, its role is to create a level playing-field so that ship operators cannot address their financial issues by simply cutting corners and compromising on safety, security and environmental performance. This approach also encourages innovation and efficiency.

Shipping is a truly international industry, and it can only operate effectively if the regulations and standards are themselves agreed, adopted and implemented on an international basis. And IMO is the forum at which this process takes place.

Title: Manual on Oil Pollution - Section IV: Combating Oil Spills, 2005 Edition (KA569E) (eBook)
Subtitle: Combating Oil Spills
Number of Pages: 212
Product Code: MM1288EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 9789280141771, ISBN 10: 9280141775
Published Date: May 2006
Author: IMO

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