Marine Low Speed Diesel Engines (eBook)

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Published Date

February 2020

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Marine Low Speed Diesel Engines (eBook)

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This publication discusses the design and operation of crosshead-type marine diesel engines. It covers basic design of the two-stroke cycle crosshead engine, engine construction, monitoring and control, engine selection and installation, engine operation, maintenance and electronically controlled engines. The book is written in a clear and concise manner with supporting line drawings. It will be a useful study guide for those studying for certificates of competency as well as a source of reference for practising marine engineers.

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This book considers the general principles of marine low speed diesel engines and provides examples of engine parts from the three different engine designs to aid understanding of construction, operation, selection and maintenance. Line drawings are used to illustrate fundamental differences in the components between different designs.


The book contains a detailed chapter on engine construction. It describes the design and purpose of key engine components, together with their maintenance requirements and common malfunctions.


There is a separate chapter on safety, additional engine systems, monitoring and control. This highlights the potential hazards (and the necessary safeguards) of fire, explosion, hotspots, oil mists and excessive noise.


General guidance is provided on engine selection, installation, operation, maintenance and emission control.



1 The Low Speed Diesel Engine

1.1 Definition of a low speed diesel engine

1.2 The crosshead engine

1.3 The crosshead

1.3.1 Astern guides

1.4 Two-stroke operating cycle

1.4.1 Uniflow scavenging

1.4.2 Loop scavenging

1.5 Turbocharging and supercharging

1.6 Engine parameters

1.6.1 Stroke to bore ratio

1.6.2 Long-stroke engines

1.6.3 Specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC)

1.6.4 Engine dimensions


2 Engine Construction

2.1 Engine structure

2.1.1 Fatigue cracking

2.2 Bedplate

2.2.1 Residual stress

2.3 Frames

2.4 Cylinder block

2.5 Tie rods

2.6 Cylinder liner

2.6.1 Thermal stress

2.6.2 Thick section bore cooled liner

2.6.3 Liner for deep section cylinder cover

2.7 Cylinder cover

2.7.1 Exhaust valve

2.7.2 Cylinder relief valve

2.7.3 Indicator cock

2.8 Piston

2.8.1 Piston crown

2.8.2 Piston cleaning ring

2.8.3 Piston rings

2.8.4 Piston cooling

2.8.5 Piston rod

2.9 Piston rod gland

2.10 Crosshead

2.10.1 Crosshead bearings

2.10.2 Guides

2.11 Connecting rod

2.12 Bearings

2.12.1 Bearing materials

2.12.2 Bearing design

2.12.3 Main bearing caps

2.13 Crankshaft

2.13.1 Semi-built crankshaft

2.13.2 Welded crankshaft

2.13.3 Axial damper

2.13.4 Thrust block

2.14 Camshaft

2.14.1 Camshaft drive

2.14.2 Camshaft chain drive

2.14.3 Camshaft gear drive

2.15 Fuel injection system

2.15.1 Helical control fuel pump

2.15.2 Valve control VIT pump

2.16 Reversing systems

2.16.1 Fuel pump cam roller reversal

2.17 High pressure (HP) fuel oil pipes

2.18 Fuel leakage alarm

2.19 Fuel injectors

2.19.1 Injector cooling

2.19.2 Atomisation

2.19.3 Combustion

2.20 Governors

2.20.1 Servo-governors

2.20.2 Isochronous governor

2.20.3 Electro-hydraulic governor

2.20.4 Electrical governor actuator pilot valve

2.20.5 Emergency manual control

2.20.6 Overspeed trip

2.20.7 Safety cut-outs

2.21 Lubrication systems

2.21.1 Crankcase lubrication

2.21.2 System lubricant properties

2.21.3 Cylinder lubrication

2.22 Engine cooling systems

2.22.1 Jacket water treatment

2.23 Combustion air supply

2.23.1 Turbochargers

2.23.2 Charge air systems

2.23.3 Air coolers

2.23.4 Water separator

2.24 Engine chocking

2.24.1 Non-metallic chocking

2.24.2 Holding down studs

2.24.3 Side chocks

2.24.4 Thrust chocks

2.24.5 Top bracing

2.25 Vibration

2.25.1 Forces

2.25.2 Vibration frequency

2.25.3 Vibration damping

2.25.4 Torsional vibration


3 Safety, Additional Engine Systems, Monitoring and Control

3.1 Crankcase explosion

3.1.1 Hot spot

3.1.2 Secondary crankcase explosion

3.1.3 Oil mist detector

3.1.4 Crankcase relief valve

3.2 Scavenge fire

3.3 Two-stage turbochargers

3.4 Power take-in (PTI) systems

3.5 Electrical generation

3.5.1 Constant speed gearing

3.5.2 Static converter

3.6 Engine monitoring systems

3.6.1 Thermodynamic instrumentation

3.7 Unmanned machinery space (UMS)

3.8 Engine management systems

3.8.1 Remote control and alarm

3.8.2 Optimising of combustion

3.8.3 Monitoring and trend analysis

3.8.4 Diagnostic systems

3.8.5 Maintenance planning

3.8.6 Spare part control and ordering

3.9 Noise


4 Engine Selection and Installation

4.1 Engine selection

4.1.1 Layout diagram

4.1.2 Load diagram

4.1.3 Engine performance

4.1.4 Specific fuel oil consumption

4.1.5 Additional power systems

4.2 Engine air supply

4.2.1 Air supply calculation

4.3 Exhaust gas system

4.4 Turbocharger choice

4.5 Engine services

4.5.1 Fuel system

4.6 Engine space requirement

4.7 Holding down system

4.8 Shaft earthing device


5 Engine Operation

5.1 Engine starting

5.1.1 Engine start-up

5.1.2 Emergency control

5.1.3 Speed adjustment

5.1.4 Fuel changeover

5.2 Running procedure

5.2.1 Cylinder power balance

5.2.2 Cylinder lubrication

5.2.3 Turbocharger surging

5.3 Speed adjustment

5.4 Stopping

5.5 Emergency stopping

5.6 Continuous slow running

5.7 Cylinder cut-out system

5.8 Emergency running

5.8.1 Cylinder cut-out

5.9 Turbocharger failure

5.9.1 Disabling a turbocharger

5.10 Record keeping

5.11 Exhaust emissions


6 Engine Maintenance

6.1 Maintenance

6.1.1 Maintenance schedules

6.2 Maintenance records

6.3 Crankshaft and main bearings

6.3.1 Main bearings

6.3.2 Crankshaft deflections

6.3.3 Bearing inspection

6.4 Connecting rod bearings

6.4.1 Guide clearance

6.5 Cylinder inspection

6.5.1 Scuffing

6.5.2 Clover-leafing

6.5.3 Piston rings

6.5.4 Cylinder liner calibration

6.6 Cylinder cover and valves

6.6.1 Cylinder cover fittings

6.7 Chain drive and camshaft

6.8 Turbocharger cleaning

6.8.1 Gas side cleaning

6.8.2 Compressor cleaning

6.8.3 Charge air cooler cleaning

6.9 Jacket cooling water

6.10 System oil testing


Appendix A The Electronically Controlled Engine

A1 Introduction

A2 Wärtsilä RT-flex engine

A2.1 Hydraulic oil system

A2.2 Compressed air

A2.3 RT-flex control systems overview

A2.4 WECS hardware

A2.5 Rail valves

A2.6 Crank angle detection

A2.7 Common rail fuel oil system

A2.8 Fuel quality setting (FQS) and variable injection timing (VIT)

A2.9 Cylinder exhaust valve

A2.10 Variable exhaust valve operation

A2.11 Starting air system

A3 MAN B&W electronic engines

A3.1 Hydraulic loop system

A3.2 Electronic system

A3.3 Rotational speed and crankshaft position

A3.4 Electronic fuel injection (ELFI)

A3.5 Electronic exhaust valve actuator (ELVA)

A3.6 Air start system

A3.7 Cylinder lubrication system


Appendix B

B1 Engine emissions and emission control

B2 CO2 (carbon dioxide)

B3 NOx (oxides of nitrogen)

B3.1 NOx formation

B3.2 NOx emission control

B3.3 SOx (oxides of sulphur)



Title: Marine Low Speed Diesel Engines (eBook)
Subtitle: Revised Edition
Series Details: Marine Engineering Practice Series
Number of Pages: 238
Product Code: WS1740EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-880-9 (9781856098809), ISBN 10: 1-85609-880-X (185609880X)
Published Date: February 2020

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