Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG4).

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Published Date

June 2018


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Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG4).

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Mooring a ship to a berth is a common function for the maritime industry, however incidents that harm ship and terminal personnel still occur. This publication establishes recommended minimum requirements that will help ship designers, terminal designers, ship operators and mooring line manufacturers improve the design, performance and safety of mooring systems.

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Mooring Equipment Guidelines is an industry publication for the safe mooring of tankers and gas carriers at terminals.

The publication provides clear and concise guidance for ship and terminal designers, ship operators and mooring line manufacturers on safe mooring system design, with an emphasis on the safety of ship and terminal personnel.

This fourth edition has been extensively updated and addresses:

  • Lessons learned from incidents, most notably from failures of HMSF mooring lines;

  • Human centred mooring designs and human factors in mooring operations;

  • New and in-development regulations and guidance from the IMO on the safety of mooring;

  • Alternative mooring technologies and how they can be incorporated safely into the design of mooring systems both for ships and terminals.

 

 

Foreword Iii

Introduction iv

Contents vii

Glossary x

Abbreviations xvi

Bibliography xviii

A note on new terminology xix

Introduction to the Mooring System Management Plan and the Line Management Plan xx

Section one

Introduction to mooring 1

1.1 General 2

1.2 Objectives 3

1.3 Forces acting on the ship 3

1.4 Mooring system design principles 6

1.5 Stiffness of lines 14

1.6 General mooring guidelines 17

1.7 Operational considerations 19

1.8 Ship mooring management 20

1.9 Mooring System Management Plan 21

Section two

Human factors 30

2.1 Introduction 32

2.2 Safety critical task analysis 35

2.3 Human-Centred Design 37

2.4 Operations and maintenance 41

2.5 Competence and training 42

2.6 Health and wellbeing 43

Section three

Mooring forces and environmental criteria 46

3.1 Introduction 48

3.2 Standard environmental criteria 48

3.3 Calculation of forces 50

3.4 Mooring restraint requirements 50

3.5 Site-specific environmental data and mooring line loads 54

Section four

Mooring arrangements and layouts 58

4.1 Introduction 60

4.2 Piers and sea islands 61

4.3 Bow mooring at offshore terminals 70

4.4 Multi Buoy Moorings 76

4.5 Towing 78

4.6 Transits of canals and waterways 82

4.7 Emergency tow-off pennants 83

Contents

4.8 Barge and small ship mooring 83

4.9 Ship to ship transfers 84

4.10 Arrangements at cargo manifolds 91

4.11 Mooring augmentation in exceptional conditions 91

4.12 Combination of various requirements 92

4.13 Equipment and fitting line-up with operational considerations 92

Section five

Mooring lines 94

5.1 Introduction 96

5.2 Mooring system design and line selection 96

5.3 Factors influencing mooring line performance 106

5.4 Maintenance, inspection and retirement 109

5.5 Steel wire ropes 117

5.6 High Modulus Synthetic Fibre lines 122

5.7 Conventional fibre lines 132

5.8 Synthetic mooring tails 136

Section six

Mooring winches 144

6.1 Introduction 146

6.2 Selection and specification of mooring winches 146

6.3 Design and construction of mooring winches 152

6.4 Operation and maintenance of mooring winches 160

Section seven

Mooring and towing fittings 166

7.1 Introduction 168

7.2 Selection and specification of mooring and towing fittings 169

7.3 Design and construction of mooring and towing fittings 175

Section eight

Structural reinforcements 184

8.1 Introduction 186

8.2 Design considerations 186

8.3 Mooring winches 187

8.4 Fairleads 188

8.5 Pedestal fairleads 192

8.6 Bitts 195

8.7 Recessed bitts 195

8.8 Bow chain stopper fittings and Smit towing brackets 195

8.9 Special considerations for installation 196

Section nine

Berth design and fittings 198

9.1 Introduction 200

9.2 Berth mooring structure layout considerations 201

9.3 Performing mooring evaluations and assumptions 204

9.4 Establishing environmental operating limits 208

9.5 Types and application of berth mooring equipment 209

9.6 Operational considerations for design of berth mooring equipment 211

9.7 Berth mooring equipment and structural inspection and maintenance 212

Section ten

Ship/shore interface 214

10.1 Introduction 216

10.2 Ship operator responsibility 217

10.3 Terminal operator responsibility 218

10.4 Ship responsibility 223

10.5 Berth operator responsibility 223

10.6 Ship mooring personnel responsibility 224

10.7 Joint ship/shore meeting and inspection 224

10.8 Tug and line boat operations 225

10.9 Records of mooring operations 225

Section eleven

Alternative mooring technology 226

11.1 Introduction 228

11.2 Examples of alternative and emerging technologies 228

11.3 Due diligence process 228

Appendices

Appendix A: Wind and current drag coefficients 234

A1 Introduction 234

A2 Symbols and notations 235

A3 Wind and current drag coefficients for large tankers 236

A4 Wind and current drag coefficients for gas carriers 244

A5 Example force calculations for VLCC 249

Appendix B: Guidelines for the purchasing and testing of mooring lines and tails 252

B1 Introduction 252

B2 How to use these guidelines 252

B3 Stakeholders 253

B4 Documentation 255

B5 Base design process 257

B6 Purchasing process 261

B7 Base design manufacture 263

B8 Base design testing 264

B9 Product supply manufacture 271

B10 Product supply quality assurance testing 272

B11 Nonstandard testing 272

B12 Example documents 273

The Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) first published Mooring Equipment Guidelines in 1992, with revised editions in 1997 and 2008. The revisions addressed changes

in the design of terminals and ships, advances in mooring line or equipment technology and concerns arising from incidents or operating experience.

 

Mooring a ship to a berth remains a basic function for the maritime industry. A wide range of standards, guidelines and recommendations are available for mooring systems, from mooring

equipment and arrangements to mooring practices. However, incidents that harm ship and terminal personnel still occur during mooring. OCIMF has undertaken a major revision of the

Mooring Equipment Guidelines in this fourth edition, with a focus on the safety of ship and terminal personnel. It addresses four significant areas of interest:

 

• Lessons learned from incidents, most notably from failures of HMSF mooring lines.

• Human-centred mooring designs and human factors in mooring operations.

• New and in-development regulations and guidance from the IMO on the safety of mooring.

• Alternative mooring technologies and how they can be incorporated safely into the design of mooring systems both for ships and terminals.

 

OCIMF is grateful for the support and contribution made by other shipping industry associations, equipment manufacturers, port and terminal associations and pilot

associations. OCIMF would also like to extend a special thank you to the following organisations that played a significant role in the sections with the largest changes and new

content: Cordage Institute, Eurocord, International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) and Ship Builders Association of Japan.

 

OCIMF would also like to thank the Marine Accident Investigation Bureau (MAIB) for input and feedback during the development of this publication.

 

The main changes from the third edition include:

• Four new sections:

-- Section two: Human factors.

-- Section nine: Berth design and fittings.

-- Section ten: Ship/shore interface.

-- Section eleven: Alternative mooring technology.

• One new appendix:

-- Appendix B: Guidelines for the purchasing and testing of mooring lines and tails.

• New tools to help operators manage equipment and lines from design to retirement:

-- Line Management Plan (LMP).

-- Mooring System Management Plan (MSMP).

• Updated and expanded guidance on mooring lines.

• New terminology to describe the strength of mooring lines and equipment (see A note on

new terminology).

• Updated wind and current drag coefficients (appendix A), which have been re-validated by

a leading Classification Society from IACS. These are now considered the most up-to-date

coefficients covering tankers in the size range from 16,000 DWT and above.

It is recommended that onboard mooring equipment and fittings, including mooring lines,

are identified as critical equipment or systems. OCIMF defines safety critical equipment as an

individual piece of equipment, a control system or an individual protection device which in

the event of a single point failure may:

• Result in a hazardous situation which could lead to an accident.

Or

• Directly cause an accident that results in harm to people or the environment.

 

Alternatives to the recommendations in this publication should only be introduced on the basis of a risk assessment and should be implemented through a proper management of

change process. Any mitigation measures or contingency plans should take into account the environmental limits for mooring, stopping cargo transfer and departing the berth.

This publication establishes recommended minimum requirements that will help ship designers, terminal designers, ship operators and mooring line manufacturers improve the

design, performance and safety of mooring systems.To make sure improvements in mooring system design are implemented as soon as possible

in the industry, it is recommended that:

 

• New ships and terminals are designed and built using the recommendations in this

publication.

• New ships already under construction and existing ships consider making changes that will

use the recommendations in this publication.

• If new build ships under construction or existing ships are unable to follow the

recommendations in this publication, they should, as a minimum, develop a Mooring

System Management Plan (MSMP) and a Line Management Plan (LMP) that will:

-- Remain on the ship throughout its life as part of the management of change records.

-- Identify a timeline and measures needed to follow the recommendations of this

publication.

-- Detail interim measures taken to address the recommendations in this publication,

with reasons given for why the changes have not been implemented yet.

• Where a terminal is already in service, the terminal management should perform a gap

assessment with the recommendations in this fourth edition of the Mooring Equipment

Guidelines and, where there are gaps, perform a documented risk assessment to ensure

these gaps are appropriately managed in accordance with the site’s risk management

guidelines to reduce risk and enhance safety. For new build terminals under consideration,

or engineering not yet completed, where applicable, consider and implement the recommendations in the fourth edition of MEG.

 

This publication is primarily aimed at the hydrocarbon and chemical industry sectors,

conventional tankers, gas carriers and the terminals they visit. Many of the guidelines and

recommendations in this publication could also be applied to non-conventional tankers and

terminals such as Floating (Production) Storage and Offloading units (F(P)SOs) and Floating

Storage and Regasification Units (FSUs), particularly where they interface with conventional

tankers. In addition, some of the guidance and recommendations can be considered to be

equally applicable to other industry sectors and non-tanker ship types.

 

With the publication of this edition, the following documents have been superseded and are

removed from distribution:

• Books:

-- Mooring Equipment Guidelines, Third Edition (MEG3).

-- Effective Mooring, Third Edition.

• Information papers:

-- Potential Hazards Associated with Requests for Additional Mooring Lines by

Terminal Operators.

-- Winch Brake Bands Design Considerations Impacting on Reeling Direction Guidelines

for Specification of Manufacture, Testing and Procurement of High Modulus

Polyethylene Ropes.

-- Summary of the Results of the MARIN Study to Validate the Adequacy of SPM Mooring

Equipment Recommendations.

-- Lloyd’s Register Risk Assessment of Emergency Tow-off Pennant Systems (ETOPS)

Onboard Tank Vessels.

The Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) is a voluntary association of oil companies (the ‘me

Title: Mooring Equipment Guidelines (MEG4).
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: 4th 2018 Ed.
Number of Pages: 312
Product Code: WS1625K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-771-0 (9781856097710), ISBN 10: 1-85609-771-4 (1856097714)
Published Date: June 2018
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 270 mm
Book Width: 300 mm
Weight: 1.80 kg
Author: Oil Companies International Marine Forum

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