Packaged Chemicals by Sea: Risk Mitigation. (eBook)

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Published Date

July 2019

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Packaged Chemicals by Sea: Risk Mitigation. (eBook)

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The book is written as a practical assistant for employees and managers, and as a consolidated informative guide for those persons new to the logistics industry.

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Chemical tankers are specifically designed and constructed to carry hazardous and noxious substances, and facilities at the liquid storage terminal are designed to transfer bulk hazardous products safely and efficiently. Ships’ crews and terminal staff are familiar with the products they handle and are subjected to a high degree of inspection by authorities and the chemical industry, therefore maintaining high levels of operational safety performance.


In contrast to upstream, the distribution supply chain is considered more complex and often involves multiple modes of transport and storage.


The risks in the distribution supply chain are complex, numerous and potentially disastrous to a company’s reputation; mitigation of these risks is dependent on understanding the logistics industry and the management systems that control the processes. The costs in assuring mitigation of risk in the distribution supply chain are an investment in the strategic assets of the company.




Figures and Tables




1 Introduction

1.1 Upstream

1.2 Downstream

1.3 Responsible Care®

1.4 Product Stewardship

1.5 Corporate Social Responsibility

1.6 The Costs of Mitigation

2 The Distribution Supply Chain: Partners and Relationships

2.1 Container Shipping Companies

2.1.1 Ship Owner

2.1.2 Ship Manager

2.1.3 Commercial Operator

2.2 Freight Forwarders

2.3 Freight Stations

2.3.1 Packers and Strippers

2.4 Shipping Agents

2.4.1 Port Agent

2.4.2 Liner Agent

2.5 Tank Container Operators

2.5.1 Tank Container Lessors

2.6 Container Terminals

2.6.1 Port Terminals

2.6.2 Hinterland Terminals

2.7 Subcontracting

2.8 Multiple Party Logistics (1PL, 2PL, 3PL…)

2.9 Supply Chain Integrity

3 Understanding Risk and Consequence

3.1 Risk and Consequence in the Supply Chain

3.1.1 Duty of Care

3.1.2 Demonstrating Due Diligence

3.2 Risk Assessment

3.3 The Application of Quantitative Risk Assessment

3.4 Key Performance Indicators (KPI)

3.5 Risk Management

3.6 Obstacles

3.6.1 Regional Responsibilities

3.6.2 Choice Limitations

3.6.3 Bottom Dollar Rates/the “Low Cost Bidder”

Packaged Chemicals by Sea: Risk Mitigation

4 Management Responsibility

4.1 Level 1 – Policies and Procedures

4.1.1 Framework Systems

4.1.2 Integrated Systems

4.1.3 Responsible Care®

4.1.4 Sustainability

4.2 Level 2 – Objectives and Management Plans

4.2.1 General Management

4.2.2 Management of Change (MoC)

4.2.3 Administration and Documentation

4.2.4 Customers and Contracts

4.2.5 Operations and Procedures

4.2.6 Personnel and Human Resources (HR)

4.2.7 Training and Competence

4.2.8 HSE&S

4.2.9 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance

4.2.10 Suppliers of Goods and Services

4.2.11 Security

4.2.12 Fall-back Plans and Emergency Preparedness

4.2.13 Audit

4.3 Level 3 – Operational Disciplines

4.3.1 Documentation

4.3.2 Customer Management

4.3.3 Operational Planning and Scheduling

4.3.4 Permit-To-Work (PTW) Systems

4.3.5 Maintenance

4.3.6 Training and Development

4.3.7 Incidents, Near Misses and Reporting

5 Chemical Products and Basic Chemistry

5.1 Chemical Groups

5.1.1 Chemical Gases

5.2 Molecular Structure of Chemical Compounds

5.3 Organic Chemistry

5.3.1 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

5.3.2 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

5.3.3 Summary of Organic Chemistry

5.4 Petrochemical Products and Manufacturing

5.4.1 Common Petrochemical Production

5.4.2 The Polymer Industry

5.4.3 Oleochemicals

5.5 Examples of Inorganic Chemicals and Production

5.6 Dry Chemical Products

6 The Regulations

6.1 The United Nations (UN)

6.2 The International Maritime Organization (IMO)

6.3 The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code

6.3.1 The Layout of the IMDG Code

6.3.2 IMDG Code Chapter 3.2, The Dangerous Goods List

6.3.3 Training

6.4 National and Regional Transport Legislation

6.4.1 United States HAZMAT

6.4.2 European Agreement for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)

6.4.3 European Agreement for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (ADN)

6.4.4 Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID)

6.4.5 ASEAN Protocol on Dangerous Goods

7 Packaging and Cargo Transport Units

7.1 Packaging

7.1.1 Bottles, Jars, Cans and Outer Packaging

7.1.2 Drums

7.1.3 Jerrycans

7.1.4 Bags

7.1.5 Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC)

7.1.6 Pallets

7.1.7 Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC)

7.2 Cargo Transport Unit (CTU)

7.2.1 ISO Shipping Containers

7.2.2 Container Inspection

7.2.3 Safety Approval Plate (CSC Plate)

7.2.4 Planning

7.2.5 Segregation

7.2.6 Securement

7.2.7 Verified Gross Mass (VGM)

7.2.8 Placarding

7.2.9 Documentation

7.2.10 Competent Authority – Certificate of Approval

7.2.11 Information for the Haulier

7.2.12 Information for the Shipping Line/Master

7.3 Bulk Containers

7.3.1 Design and Construction

7.3.2 Operations

7.3.3 Placarding and Shipping Documents

7.4 Tank Containers

7.4.1 ISO Tank Containers

7.4.2 Construction

7.4.3 Selecting the ISO Tank Container

7.4.4 Acceptance and Pre-loading Inspection

7.4.5 Placarding

7.4.6 Cleaning and Cleaning Stations

7.5 Flexitanks

7.5.1 Preparation and Loading

8 Hazards and Hazard Classification

8.1 Safety Data Sheets

8.2 Fire and Explosion

8.2.1 Requirements for a Fire or Explosion

8.2.2 Possible Sources of Ignition

8.2.3 Static Electricity

8.2.4 Flammable Range

8.2.5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC)

8.2.6 Inert Gas and Flammability

8.2.7 Flash Point

8.2.8 Fire Point

8.2.9 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE)

8.2.10 Auto-ignition Temperature

8.3 Toxicity, Corrosive and Reactivity

8.3.1 Toxicity

8.3.2 Corrosive

8.3.3 Reactivity

8.4 Health hazards

8.4.1 Toxic Products

8.4.2 Corrosive Products

8.4.3 Reactive Products

8.4.4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

8.5 Environmental Hazards

8.6 Hazard Classification

8.6.1 IMDG Hazard Classification

8.6.2 Hazard Warning Labels and Placarding

9 Health and Safety of Supply Chain Personnel

9.1 Safe Practices and Continual Improvement

9.1.1 On-the-Spot Risk Assessment

9.2 Factors affecting Health and Safety

9.2.1 Heat

9.2.2 Cold

9.2.3 Noise

9.2.4 Vibration

9.2.5 Chemical Hazards

9.2.6 Biological Hazards

9.2.7 Manual Handling

9.2.8 Slips, Trips and Falls

9.2.9 Working at Height

9.2.10 Repetitive Strain Injury

9.3 Occupational Health

9.3.1 Pre-employment Health Checks

9.3.2 Employee Health Screening

9.3.3 Exposure and Risk-Based Routine Screening

9.4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

9.4.1 Clothing

9.4.2 Head Protection

9.4.3 Footwear

9.4.4 Gloves

9.4.5 Goggles, Spectacles and Face Visors

9.4.6 Hearing Protection

9.4.7 Respiratory Protection

9.4.8 Safety Harnesses and Fall Protection

9.4.9 Product Specific PPE Matrix

9.4.10 Decontamination of PPE

9.5 Safety Signage

9.6 Vapour (gas) Detection

9.7 First Aid Equipment/Treatment

10 Environmental Performance

10.1 Environmental Aspects and Impacts

10.1.1 Environmental Evaluation and Assessment

10.2 Carbon Footprint

10.2.1 Calculating the Carbon Footprint

10.2.2 Factors Influencing the Carbon Footprint

10.2.3 Limits of Data-collection

10.3 Waste and Recycling

10.3.1 Sources of Waste

10.3.2 Types of Waste, Commercial Value and Recycling

10.4 Plastics

10.4.1 Types of Plastic

10.4.2 Recycling and Re-using Plastics

10.4.3 Using Plastics in the Distribution Supply Chain

10.5 Emergency Response – Clean-up

10.6 Measurement of Environmental Performance

11 Emergency Preparedness and Response

11.1 Risk Assessment

11.2 Emergency Preparedness, Policy and Performance Standard

11.3 Emergency Services and Mutual Aid

11.4 Emergency Response Plan

11.4.1 Contents of the Emergency Response Plan

11.4.2 ERP Monitoring and Review

11.5 Emergency Response Personnel

11.5.1 Training and Response Performance

11.5.2 Forward Incident Control Team

11.5.3 Emergency Main Control Team

11.5.4 Specialist Response Team(s)

11.6 Emergency Response Equipment

11.6.1 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance

11.6.2 Critical Equipment

11.7 Emergency Control Centre

11.7.1 Communication

11.7.2 Crisis Communication

11.8 Response

11.8.1 Fire

11.8.2 Spill

11.8.3 Vapour/Toxic Release

11.8.4 Medical

11.8.5 Local Community

11.9 Post Incident Clean-up and Recovery

11.9.1 Clean-up

11.9.2 Waste Removal and Remediation

11.9.3 Recovery

12 Supply Chain Security

12.1 Security Policy, Assessment and Plan

12.1.1 Security Policy

12.1.2 Security Risk Assessment

12.1.3 Security Plan

12.1.4 The Security Manager’s Role and Responsibilities

12.1.5 Monitoring and Measuring Security Performance

12.2 The Site

12.2.1 Security Training

12.2.2 Site Search Plans

12.2.3 General Site Security

12.2.4 Access and Exit Control

12.2.5 Preventative Measures

12.3 The Consignment

12.3.1 High Consequence Dangerous Goods

12.3.2 Service Agreements

12.3.3 Declaration

12.3.4 Tracking

12.4 Transport

12.4.1 Subcontracting

12.4.2 Intermodal Supply Chain Transport

12.4.3 Transit Routing

12.5 Security of Information and Cybersecurity

12.5.1 Threats

12.5.2 Computer Rooms

12.5.3 Computer Systems

12.5.4 Internet Access

12.5.5 Logging, Maintenance and Data Disposal

Supplement 1 IMPCAS Questionnaire Freight Forwarder

Supplement 2 IMPCAS Questionnaire Container Freight Station

Supplement 3 IMPCAS Questionnaire Ship Agent

Supplement 4 IMPCAS Questionnaire Tank Container Operator

Supplement 5 IMPCAS Questionnaire Container Port Terminal

This book is not an Industry Standard or Code of Practice. The contents do not challenge the established in-depth guidance of other industry organisations, but provide a crossreference to those publications to ensure an overall understanding of the safe distribution of packaged chemical products by sea transportation.


The book is written as a practical sequential prompt, an aide-mémoire for employees and managers, and as a consolidated informative guide for those persons new to the logistics industry.


The commercial success of all companies is built on reputation. With the lightning speed and ferocity of modern media, a good public image in the international market place remains intact until the moment of an incident. Association, even suggested involvement with an accident or incident can destroy reputation, collapse share price and ultimately result in the demise of the company.

Title: Packaged Chemicals by Sea: Risk Mitigation. (eBook)
Edition: First
Number of Pages: 290
Product Code: WS1668EA
Published Date: July 2019
Book Height: 305 mm
Book Width: 216 mm
Book Spine: 22 mm
Author: Chemical Distribution Institute

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