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Published Date

July 2012

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Response to Marine Oil Spills, 2nd Edition (eBook)

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This publication is a comprehensive review of the problems posed by marine oil spills and the potential response measures. It will benefit anyone involved in training programmes, contingency planning or actual response to oil spills. The publication contains numerous case studies, including a section on the Deepwater Horizon incident, which are underpinned by helpful photographs and diagrams.

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The primary objectives of a rapid response to oil spills are a return to normal activity as quickly as possible and minimisation of the risk of oil contaminating environmentally or aesthetically important areas.

Since its establishment in 1968, ITOPF has responded to several hundred shipping incidents worldwide providing objective technical advice on clean-up measures, environmental and economic effects, and compensation. ITOPF has also provided remote advice at numerous other incidents. The incidents have involved crude oil from tankers and bunker fuel, chemicals and bulk cargoes from all types of ship. Advice is also occasionally given about potential oil spills from other sources, including pipelines and offshore installations, and physical damage to coral reefs resulting from ship groundings.

The first-hand experience of ITOPF’s staff, gained through direct involvement in pollution incidents, is utilised during damage assessment, contingency planning and training assignments, as well as in the production of technical publications.

This is the ultimate reference aid for all ships that carry oil that may be involved in a pollution incident, whether it is from cargo oil or bunker fuel oil, for any jetty, pier, berth or quay that may have to deal with a marine pollution incident and for all other parties that may find themselves called to react to a pollution incident, such as the Coastguard, port authorities or State responders.

Chapter 1 Sources of Oil in the Marine Environment

1.1 Transportation Losses

1.1.1 Accidental Spills from Tankers

1.1.2 Other Transportation Losses

1.2 Petroleum Exploration and Production Activities

1.3 Petroleum Use

1.4 Natural Seeps and Erosion

Chapter 2 Fate of Marine Oil Spills

2.1 Properties of Oil

2.2 The Weathering Processes

2.3 Persistence of Oil

2.4 Forecasting Slick Movement and Weathering

2.5 Implications for Clean-up and Contingency Planning

Chapter 3 Aerial Surveillance at Sea

3.1 Preparations for Aerial Surveillance

3.2 Observing an Oil Spill from an Aircraft

3.3 Recording and Reporting Aerial Observations

3.4 Quantifying Floating Oil

3.5 Remote Sensing

Chapter 4 Oil on Shorelines

4.1 Types and Sources of Oil Pollution

4.2 Appearance and Persistence of Oil on Shorelines

4.3 Describing and Quantifying Stranded Oil

4.4 Sampling Guidelines

Chapter 5 Environmental Effects of Oil Spills

5.1 Environmental Impacts

5.1.1 Impact of Oil on Specific Marine Organisms and Habitats

5.2 Natural Recovery

5.3 Reinstatement

5.4 Post-Spill Studies

Chapter 6 Economic Effects of Oil Spills

6.1 Fisheries and Mariculture

6.2 Tourism

6.3 Property Damage

6.4 Industry

6.5 Agriculture

6.6 Compensation for Economic Loss

Chapter 7 Containment and Recovery

7.1 Containment

7.1.1 Boom Design

7.1.2 Boom Characteristics

7.1.3 Boom Failures

7.1.4 Boom Performance

7.1.5 Forces Exerted on Booms

7.1.6 Towed Booms

7.1.7 Moored Booms

7.1.8 Care and Maintenance of Booms

7.1.9 Limitations of Booms 

7.1.10 Alternative Containment Systems

7.2 Recovery

7.2.1 Skimmer Mechanisms and Design

7.2.2 Selection of Skimmers

7.2.3 Operating Practices

7.2.4 Performance/Limitations of Skimmers

7.2.5 Maintenance

7.2.6 Other Recovery Methods

7.3 Success of At-Sea Operations

Chapter 8 The Use of Dispersants

8.1 Mechanism of Dispersion and Dispersant Composition

8.2 Limitations of Dispersants

8.3 Other Chemical Treating Agents

8.4 Application Methods

8.4.1 Vessel Spraying

8.4.2 Aerial Spraying

8.4.3 Application Rate

8.5 Monitoring Dispersant Effectiveness

8.6 Logistics and Control

8.6.1 Storage

8.6.2 Using Dispersants on Shorelines

8.7 Environmental Considerations

8.8 Planning for Dispersant Use

Chapter 9 Shoreline Clean-up

9.1 Strategy

9.2 Clean-up Techniques

9.2.1 Rocks, Boulders and Manmade Structures

9.2.2 Cobbles, Pebbles and Shingle

9.2.3 Sand Beaches

9.2.4 Muddy Shores

9.2.5 Corals

9.3 Organisation

9.3.1 Workforce

9.3.2 Volunteers

9.3.3 Equipment Requirements

9.4 Termination of Clean-up

Chapter 10 Disposal of Oil and Oiled Waste

10.1 Contingency Planning

10.2 Nature of Oil and Oiled Material

10.3 Storage and Preparation for Disposal

10.4 Minimisation of Waste

10.5 Recovery of Oils

10.6 Landfill

10.7 Incineration

10.8 Stabilisation

10.9 Land Farming

10.10 Composting

Chapter 11 Contingency Planning

11.1 Scope of Contingency Plans

11.2 Content of Contingency Plans

11.2.1 Risk Assessment

11.2.2 Strategic Policy

11.2.3 Operational Procedures

11.2.4 Information Directory

Chapter 12 Alternative Techniques

12.1 In-situ Burning

12.1.1 Feasibility of Burning

12.1.2 Operational Issues

12.2 Bioremediation

12.2.1 Biostimulation

12.2.2 Bioaugmentation

12.2.3 Limitations of Use

12.2.4 Considerations for Use

12.3 Other Alternative Techniques

12.3.1 Shoreline Cleaning Agents

12.3.2 Herders

12.3.3 Solidifiers

Further Reading

Other ITOPF Publications

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has responded to over 750 incidents involving oil or chemical spills worldwide. Our highly skilled international team are ready to assist 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to provide impartial technical advice.

As a not-for-profit organisation, we have devoted efforts to developing a wide range of technical services to promote effective response in the marine environment to back up our core role of responding to ship-sourced spills. The five key services that we offer are spill responseclaims analysis & damage assessment, contingency planning, training and information.

Our services are provided to our Members (tanker owners) or Associates (other shipowners) and their oil pollution insurers (normally one of the P&I Clubs), and we offer also our services at the request of governments and intergovernmental organisations such as the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds (IOPC Funds).

Title: Response to Marine Oil Spills, 2nd Edition (eBook)
Number of Pages: 176
Product Code: WS1171EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-506-8 (9781856095068), ISBN 10: 1-85609-506-1 (1856095061)
Published Date: July 2012
Author: ITOPF

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