Ship Stability Strength and Loading Principles, Second Edition 2020

Published Date

December 2020

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Ship Stability Strength and Loading Principles, Second Edition 2020

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This book is a clear, instructive guide to ship stability for anyone studying to become certified to Mate/Master or officer of the watch (OOW) level.



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The book covers the following areas:


  • The ship stability syllabus requirements for learners studying for a STCW 78 as amended OFFICER IN CHARGE OF NAVIGATIONAL WATCH REG

  • The ship stability syllabus requirements for learners studying for a STCW 78 as amended CHIEF MATE/MASTER REG. II/2 (UNLIMITED) certificate of competency

  • The principles of ship construction, as necessary to understand the nature of the stresses to which a ship’s hull will be subjected in service.


Martin Rhodes, the author of this book, is a well-known lecturer on the subject of ship stability. The book is written in an accessible and easy to read style, guiding students through the subject in a logical manner.

This title supersedes Ship Stability OOW and Ship Stability Mates/Masters.



Chapter 1 Basic Principles

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Density, mass and volume

1.3 Laws of flotation

1.4 Simple box-shaped vessel calculations

1.5 The marine hydrometer

1.6 Terms relating to ship length

1.7 Draught marks and reading the draught


Chapter 2 Hydrostatic Data – Draught, Displacement and Tonnes per Centimetre Immersion (TPC)

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Hydrostatic particulars

2.3 Tonnes per centimetre immersion (TPC)

2.3.4 Simple load/discharge problems


Chapter 3 Design Coefficients

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Coefficient of fineness of the waterplane area (Cw)

3.3 Block coefficient (Cb)

3.4 Amidships area coefficient (Cm)

3.5 Longitudinal prismatic coefficient (Cp)


Chapter 4 Load Lines

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Geographical and seasonal load line zones

4.3 Load line dimensions

4.4 Water density allowances

4.5 Load line calculations

4.6 Load line certificate and notification of draughts

4.7 Deadweight (DWT) scale


Chapter 5 Centre of Gravity (G) and Centre of Buoyancy (B)

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Centre of gravity (G)

5.3 Multiple weight problems

5.4 Centre of buoyancy (B)


Chapter 6 An Introduction to Transverse Statical Stability

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Transverse statical stability defined

6.3 Righting lever (GZ)

6.4 Moment of statical stability (righting moment)

6.5 Initial transverse metacentre (M)

6.6 Initial metacentric height (GM)


Chapter 7 Conditions of Stability

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Stable condition

7.3 Neutral condition

7.4 Unstable condition and angle of loll


Chapter 8 Initial Transverse Metacentre (M)

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The initial transverse metacentre explained

8.3 Metacentric diagrams

8.4 Factors affecting KM


Chapter 9 Free Surface Effect

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Free surface effect and the loss of transverse statical stability

9.3 Calculating free surface effect

9.4 Representation of free surface data in tank sounding/ullage tables

9.5 Factors influencing free surface effect

9.6 Important points to note regarding free surface moments


Chapter 10 The Curve of Statical Stability (GZ Curve)

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Producing a curve of statical stability

10.3 Basic information available from the curve of statical stability

10.4 Curves of statical stability for stiff and tender ships


Chapter 11 List

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Single weight problems and the ‘list triangle’

11.3 Multiple weight problems

11.4 Loading weights about the centreline to complete upright

11.5 List and free surface effect


Chapter 12 Curves of Statical Stability for Different Conditions: Correcting List and Loll Situations

12.1 Introduction

12.2 The curve of statical stability for a ship in a stable condition

12.3 The curve of statical stability for a ship in a neutral condition

12.4 The curve of statical stability for a ship in an unstable condition (angle of loll)

12.5 The curve of statical stability for a listed ship

12.6 There are two sides to everything - including GZ curves

12.7 A combination of stability conditions

12.8 Causes of loll and list during a voyage

12.9 Procedures for correcting loll and list

12.10 Correcting BOTH a loll and list situation

12.11 Summary


Chapter 13 Suspended Weights

13.1 Introduction

13.2 The effect on KG of lifting a weight using ship’s gear

13.3 Loading a weight using ship’s gear

13.4 To calculate the maximum permissible KG/minimum permissible GM required prior to loading or discharging a weight to ensure that a certain list limit is not exceeded

13.5 Problems involving two heavy lift weights


Chapter 14 Trim

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Trim and change of trim

14.3 Moments to change trim by one centimetre (MCTC)

14.4 Longitudinal centre of flotation (LCF or F)

14.5 Calculating the final draughts when a weight is shifted

14.6 Trim data

14.7 True mean draught (TMD). Calculating the displacement when trimmed

14.8 Principles of trim calculations using hydrostatic data

14.9 Practical trim problems

14.10 Examination style problems involving trim




Chapter 15 Shipbuilding Materials

15.1 Classification Societies

15.2 Shipbuilding materials

15.3 Material testing

15.4 Fatigue


Chapter 16 Ship Construction Principles

16.1 Classification of stresses

16.2 Structural terminology

16.3 Discontinuities of strength (notches)

16.4 Hull plate thicknesses

16.5 Transverse watertight bulkheads

16.6 Double bottom structure


Chapter 17 Ship Stresses and Structural Strength Compensation

17.1 Longitudinal Stresses

17.2 Transverse stresses

17.3 Local stresses and structural compensation

17.4 Torsional stresses and container ships


Chapter 18 Shear Force and Bending Moment Calculations

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Shear force and bending moment diagrams for box-shaped vessels

18.3 Stress loading programmes 284

18.4 Stress calculating programs − system requirements and data representation


Chapter 19 Large Yacht Construction

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Materials used in yacht construction

19.3 Framing systems

19.4 Mast and rigging stresses


Chapter 20 Corrosion Control

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Nature and forms of corrosion

20.3 Electrochemical nature of corrosion

20.4 Corrosion initiation

20.5 Cathodic corrosion prevention

20.6 Galvanic corrosion in the propeller region

20.7 Corrosion control by design

20.8 Paint systems 309




Chapter 21 Change of Trim due to Change of Density and Harder Trim Problems

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Change of trim due to change of density

21.3 Trim problems when the ship is in different water densities


Chapter 22 Air Draughts

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Tidal heights - definitions

22.3 Air draught calculations


Chapter 23 Dry-Docking

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Sequence of events during dry-docking

23.3 Calculating the P force

23.4 Loss of stability when dry-docking

23.5 Typical dry-docking problems

23.6 Practical considerations during dry-docking

23.7 Preparations for dry-docking


Chapter 24 The Inclining Experiment

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Stability information to be provided to the Master

24.3 The inclining experiment explained

24.4 Preliminary preparations prior to conducting the inclining test

24.5 Precautions to be taken by the surveyor to ensure accuracy of the calculation

24.6 Example inclining test calculation

24.7 The occasions when an inclining experiment and lightweight survey must be conducted

24.8 To determine whether a ship should be re-inclined


Chapter 25 The Wall-sided Formula including Calculating the Angle of Loll

25.1 Introduction

25.2 The distinction between stability at small and large angles of heel

25.3 Angle of loll

25.4 Calculating the angle of list caused by a transverse shift of weight when GM is zero


Chapter 26 Factors Affecting the Shape of the Curve of Statical Stability

26.1 Introduction

26.2 The effects of a change of KG

26.3 The effects of a transverse shift of weight (list)

26.4 The effects of a change in freeboard

26.5 Comparison of stability of a ship in the ballast and fully loaded conditions

26.6 The effects of beam

26.7 The effects of stern trim


Chapter 27 Assessing Compliance of a Ship’s Loaded Condition with MCA and IMO Stability Criteria

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Simpson’s Rules for calculating areas under curves

27.3 Dynamical stability − the relevance of the area under the curve of statical stability

27.4 Minimum intact stability criteria for cargo ships

27.5 Assessing compliance of a ship’s loaded condition

27.6 The relationship between GM and the initial slope of the curve of statical stability

27.7 The unreliability in practice of using stability curve data for assessing a ship’s stability at sea


Chapter 28 Bulk Cargoes and the Carriage of Grain

28.1 Introduction

28.2 The effect of a shift of solid bulk cargo on the curve of statical stability

28.3 The effect on the curve of statical stability of a shift of solid bulk cargo

28.4 Assumptions of the International Grain Code with respect to anticipated shift of grain cargo

28.5 Grain loading information to be supplied

28.6 Intact stability criteria for ships carrying grain issued with a Document of Authorisation

28.7 Derivation of the heeling arm

28.8 Compensation for the vertical component of shift of grain

28.9 Procedure to verify compliance of a ship’s loaded condition with the International Grain Code criteria

28.10 Methods of improving stability when the minimum International Grain Code criteria is not satisfied

28.11 Optional stability requirements to be met by ships without documents of authorisation carrying partial cargoes of bulk grain

28.12 Simplified stability for ships carrying grain built on or after 1st January 1994 (on or after the date that the IMO International Grain Code takes effect)

28.13 Further example of representation of grain data



Chapter 29 Calculation and Assignment of Freeboard

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Definitions

29.3 Ship’s side markings

29.4 Conditions of assignment of freeboard applicable to all ships

29.5 Type ‘A’ and type ‘B’ ships 488

29.6 Special conditions of assignment for type ‘A’ ships

(Annex I: Regulation 26 (ICLL))

29.7 Freeboard tables (Annex I: Regulation 28 (ICLL))

29.8 The distinction between type ‘A’ ships and type ‘B’ ships explained

29.9 B-60 and B-100 tabular freeboards

29.10 Calculation procedure for the assignment of a type ‘A’ freeboard

29.11 Example load line assignment calculation for a Type ‘A’ ship

29.12 Load line certification and surveys


Chapter 30 Stability Aspects of Timber Deck Cargoes

30.1 Introduction

30.2 Characteristics of timber cargoes

30.3 Timber load lines

30.4 Special requirements for ships assigned timber freeboards

30.5 Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) UK criteria

30.6 IMO stability criteria for ships carrying timber deck cargoes

30.7 Additional considerations


Chapter 31 Wind Heeling

31.1 Introduction

31.2 Wind heeling considerations for container ships (MCA)

31.3 Wind heeling considerations for all ships (IMO)


Chapter 32 Icing

32.1 Introduction

32.2 MCA icing guidance applicable to all ships

32.3 IMO icing considerations

32.4 Causes of ice accumulation

32.5 Rates of ice accumulation

32.6 SOLAS Chapter V – Safety of Navigation


Chapter 33 Draught Surveys

33.1 Introduction

33.2 The draught survey calculation procedure

33.3 Worked examples


Chapter 34 Heel when Turning

34.1 Introduction

34.2 Terms relating to a ship’s turning circle

34.3 Forces that cause the ship to heel during turning

34.4 Calculating the angle of heel when turning

34.5 Calculating the maximum draught (increase in draught) due to list/heel


Chapter 35 Bilging

35.1 Introduction

35.2 The effects of bilging an empty amidships compartment

35.3 The effects of bilging an empty amidships compartment with a watertight flat (double bottom)

35.4 Bilging a compartment when permeability is less than 100%

35.5 Calculating the draughts when an end compartment becomes bilged

35.6 Calculating the list when an amidships compartment is bilged – permeability 100%

35.7 Review of principles of bilging


Chapter 36 Rolling and Dangerous Sea Wave Phenomena

36.1 Introduction

36.2 Still water rolling

36.3 Rolling in waves

36.4 Wave characteristics, resonance and period of encounter (TE)

36.5 Dangerous wave phenomena

36.6 Parametric rolling

36.7 Significantly larger waves

36.8 Methods adopted to minimise a ship’s rolling motion at sea


Chapter 37 Specific Ship Type Construction and Stability Characteristics

37.1 Introduction

37.2 Offshore supply vessels

37.3 Double hull tankers

37.4 Bulk carriers

37.5 Enhanced surveys of tankers and bulk carriers

37.6 Passenger ship subdivision and damaged stability requirements

37.7 RoRo passenger and cargo ships

37.8 Other ship types for which special considerations and alternative stability criteria apply


Chapter 38 Voyage Planning Calculations

38.1 Introduction

38.2 Voyage planning — worked examples


Chapter 39 Ship Load Calculations

39.1 Introduction

39.2 Worked examples



Ship Stability Data Sheets


Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.

Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.

Title: Ship Stability Strength and Loading Principles, Second Edition 2020
Subtitle: Merchant Navy Officers of the Watch, Merchant Navy Chief Mates and Masters
Edition: Second
Number of Pages: 764
Product Code: IT102001
Published Date: December 2020
Weight: 3.30 kg
Author: Martin Rhodes

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