Ship Vetting and its Application to LNG, 2nd Edition (eBook)

Published Date

April 2020

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Ship Vetting and its Application to LNG, 2nd Edition (eBook)

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This publication describes the vetting of LNG ships. It provides an overview of the LNG shipping business with recommendations on the technical aspects of LNG ships relevant to vetting and clearance processes.

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Verification that LNGCs are of an acceptable standard is achieved by applying ship inspection and vetting systems.


This book outlines the history of LNG shipping and provides an overview of the various types of engines and containment systems.


It then looks at the ship vetting process, as it applies to LNG, including the technical approval process, ship/shore compatibility, assessing ship quality and assessment for use.


The final chapter refers to relevant sections of the SIRE VIQ. Guidance is provided on the actions the ship should take to demonstrate it meets the required standards.


This publication draws on information learned from the tanker industry and passes it on to all parties involved in vetting LNGCs. It also contains information about the practices of some individual companies, which is provided purely for guidance.

Section 1: The Trading of LNG by Sea  

1.1 Overview

1.2 Sales and Purchase Agreements  

1.3 The LNG Supply Chain

1.4 Production Projects

1.5 Major Exporters of LNG

1.6 Major Importers of LNG

1.7 The LNG Shipping Business

1.8 The LNG Terminals  

1.9 Ship to Ship Transfer

Section 2: The LNG Fleet in 2020. A Technical Overview  

2.1 LNG Carriers  

2.2 Floating Storage Regasification Units (FSRU)  

2.4 Cargo Containment Systems  

2.5 Main Propulsion Systems on LNG Carriers  

Section 3: Vetting on LNG Carriers

3.1 The SIRE Programme

3.2 The Elements of Vetting

Section 4: The SIRE Vessel Inspection Questionnaire as a Risk Assessment Tool  

4.1 Chapter 8 of the VIQ 7 and its Application to LNG Carriers

4.2 Policies, Procedures and Documentation

4.3 Stability and Cargo Loading Limitations  

4.4 Cargo Operations and Related Safety Management

4.5 Cargo Handling and Monitoring Equipment

4.6 LNG Cargo Machinery Rooms

4.7 Cargo Reliquefaction Systems (if fitted)

4.8 Gas Combustion Systems (applicable to ships fitted with a reliquefaction system or other cargo system that requires a gas combustion unit to be fitted)  

4.9 Void and Interbarrier Spaces and Seals (applicable for all types of cargo containment)  

4.10 Inert Gas Systems

4.11 Pressure Relief and Venting Systems

4.12 Emergency Shutdown (ESD) System

4.13 Manifold Arrangements

4.14 Safety Equipment

4.15 Cargo Hoses

4.16 Cargo Lifting Equipment

4.17 Ship to Ship Transfer Operations (applicable if the ship is utilised for regular commercial ship to ship cargo transfer)  

Section 5: Assessing Risk

5.1 Observations

5.2 The Role of the Vetter in Assessing Risk

5.3 Continuous Improvement  


Appendix A – Contains a list of the full LNG carrier fleet (listed by size) >65 km3 as of the beginning of 2020, including FSRUs

Appendix B – Contains the list of the LNG fleet ordered by ship age, oldest to newest

Appendix C – Contains LNG fleet ordered alphabetically, by ship name

Appendix D – Shows the orderbook of LNG carriers >65 km3 as of the beginning of 2020, including FSRUs


Inspection and vetting by charterers, buyers, terminal operators and sellers has been an integral part of ship operations in the tanker industry for over 30 years and has helped to improve operating standards over this period.

Since the commencement of shipments in 1959, billions of m3 of LNG have been shipped across the world without loss of containment.

Recent changes in trading patterns have resulted in a number of short-term freight contracts, involving ships trading to ports at which they have never previously called, partial cargoes and ship to ship and double banking cargo transfer operations. Consequently charterers, buyers, terminal operators and sellers need to assure themselves that the condition, operation and ownership of any ship used are of an acceptable standard by applying their inspection and vetting systems to LNG shipping.

Within this document there are some references to the practices of individual companies. Such examples are given for guidance and may not reflect unanimous application by all industry members.

Captain Juan P Presedo is a Master Mariner, holding an MBA in Oil and Gas and a BSc in Marine Transportation. He served for over 10 years at sea, predominantly on LNG carriers.

Captain Presedo has experience as a Marine Operations Superintendent and as a Marine Assurance Specialist. He is a specialist in LNG marine operations and has taken part in new building projects and dry docks of LNG carriers.

Since 2014, Captain Presedo has been an accredited OCIMF SIRE inspector and is an LR certified ISO 9001/14001 lead auditor. He is a fellow of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, an associated fellow of the Nautical Institute and has frequently written for shipping magazines and specialist nautical publications.

He is co-author of the 2017 Witherby title, Navigation in Shallow Waters.

Title: Ship Vetting and its Application to LNG, 2nd Edition (eBook)
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: Second
Product Code: WS1804EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-882-3 (9781856098823), ISBN 10: 1-85609-882-6 (1856098826)
Published Date: April 2020
Binding Format: Paperback
Author: Capt. Juan Pablo Presedo

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