Shiphandling - Passenger Ships Without Tugs

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Published Date

June 2018


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Shiphandling - Passenger Ships Without Tugs

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Written by an industry expert, this detailed, illustrated publication provides guidance and practical advice relating to the handling of cruise liners and ferries.

Captain Nick Nash, Master Mariner, FRGS, FRIN, FNI, shares his extensive knowledge and experience gained from over fourteen years in command of cruise ships.

 

The 361-page book covers the ‘mechanics’ of handling a large cruise ship and has primarily been written to help aspiring cruise ship captains to master the art. However, it will also be a useful source of reference for more experienced officers.

 

The book discusses:

 

  • Ship’s equipment, including propellers, rudders and thrusters; podded propulsion systems; the rate of turn indicator; and radius track control systems

 

  • Shiphandling theory, including berthing and lifting-off techniques, the pivot point, drift angle, and Bernoulli’s theory as it relates to ship squat and interaction

 

  • The effect of wind and current and how to calculate the forces on the vessel

 

  • Stopping techniques and emergency anchoring.

 

The appendix includes numerous approach/departure plans for ports around the world, based on the author’s own manoeuvring notes. Each port is illustrated with annotated route charts and practical guidance notes.

 

Captain Nash is a serving Master with Princess Cruises, part of the Carnival Corporation Group, and is also the current President of The Nautical Institute.

Foreword

Bibliography and Thanks

Author’s Note

About the Author

1. THE PIVOT POINT

1.1 Locating the Pivot Point

1.1.1 Thruster action

1.1.2 Rudders

1.1.3 Effect of drift

1.1.4 Anchors

1.1.5 Shallow water

1.1.6 Wind

1.1.7 Hull form

1.2 How to Find the Pivot Point – In Practice

1.2.1 Pivot point and torque

1.3 Pivot Point in Action

1.4 Pivot Point Zone

2. PROPELLERS, RUDDERS AND THRUSTERS

2.1 Transverse Thrust

2.2 Propeller Torque

2.2.1 Outward turning propellers

2.2.2 Inward turning propellers

2.3 Rudder Force

2.3.1 Two case studies on rudder force

2.3.2 Lateral rudder force

2.4 Thrusters

2.4.1 Thruster transition

2.4.2 Thruster pull

2.4.3 Thruster fade

3. PODDED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

3.1 A Brief Summary of Azipod Development

4. BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE

4.1 Squat

4.1.1 Effects/indications of squat

4.1.2 Squat – practical notes

4.2 Bank Effect

4.2.1 Simulator exercise showing bank effect

4.3 Navigation in Narrow Channels

4.3.1 The blockage factor

4.3.2 Blockage factor and drift angle

4.3.3 Water flow and pressure zones

4.3.4 Interaction between ships

4.3.5 Meeting in a narrow channel

4.4 The Rudder

4.4.1 Centre of pressure

4.4.2 The rudder stall

4.4.3 High lift rudders

4.4.4 Rudder block

4.5 Altering Course on High-Sided Vessels

5. RATE OF TURN

5.1 Constant Rudder vs Constant Radius Turn

5.2 Monitoring the Constant Radius Turn

5.3 Summary

6. PRACTICAL USE OF A RADIUS TRACK CONTROL SYSTEM

7. WIND AND CURRENT

7.1 Wind Loads on Cruise Vessels

7.2 How to Construct a Ship’s Wind Chart

7.2.1 Model test wind force measurements information

7.3 How Does Wind Act on a Stationary Ship in Practice?

7.3.1 What happens next?

7.3.2 Making headway – beam wind

7.3.3 Making sternway – beam wind

7.3.4 Leeway – ship stopped

7.3.5 Estimation of leeway

7.4 Crabbing

7.5 Wind Measurement

7.6 Current Forces

7.7 Wind Statistics Log

7.8 Summary

8. STOPPING AND EMERGENCY ANCHORING AS A BRAKE

8.1 Manoeuvring Stopping

8.2 Controlled Slow Down

8.3 Crash Stop

8.4 Alternative Stopping Ideas

8.5 Rudder Cycling

8.6 Emergency Anchoring

8.7 Looking at the Forces Involved and a Different Approach

8.7.1 Method

8.7.2 Effect of engine speed change in a turn

9. BASIC HANDLING

9.1 The 7° Approach

9.2 The 50 m and 10° Lift Off Angle

9.3 A Long Run In

9.4 Backing into the Berth

9.5 The 100 m Lift Off

9.6 The ‘U’ Turn Approach

9.7 The Finger Pier

9.7.1 Watch the bow

9.7.2 Lifting without a tug

9.8 Ship’s Tender

9.9 Push and Drive

9.10 Head Up Display

9.11 Transfer Distance

9.12 Control Checks

9.13 The Overshoot, Backup and Drop Anchoring Method

9.14 Undocking in a Strong Current

10. THE UP AND DOWN SIDE OF THE DRIFT ANGLE

10.1 Conning Position in Relation to the Centreline

10.2 Estimation of Drift Angle

10.3 The Full Drift Angle Excel Spreadsheet

10.4 In Practice

APPENDICES

Appendix A – Example Port Manoeuvring Plans

Barbados arrival

Barbados departure (1)

Barbados departure (2)

Belfast arrival

Dublin arrival

Dublin departure (1)

Dublin departure (2)

Dublin arrival (back in)

Gibraltar arrival

Gibraltar departure

Gibraltar arrival (inner berth, North Mole)

Gothenburg arrival

Gothenburg departure

Greenock arrival

Juneau arrival

Juneau departure

Le Havre arrival

Le Havre departure (1)

Le Havre departure (2)

Liverpool arrival

Livorno, Italy, arrival

Mahogany Bay, Roatan, arrival

Mahogany Bay departure

Marseille arrival

Marseille departure

Monte Carlo arrival

Montego Bay arrival

Montego Bay departure

Mykonos arrival

Naples arrival

Nawiliwili, Hawaii, arrival

Nawiliwili, Hawaii, departure

Piraeus arrival (inside berth)

Piraeus departure (inside berth)

Piraeus arrival (outer berth)

Piraeus departure (outer berth)

Ponta Delgada, Azores, arrival

Port Everglades arrival (pier 2, PST)

Port Everglades arrival (pier 2, SST)

Port Everglades departure (pier 2, PST)

San Francisco arrival (flood tide)

San Francisco arrival (ebb tide)

San Francisco departure (ebb current)

San Juan arrival

San Juan departure

San Pedro arrival

San Pedro departure

South Queensferry, Scotland, anchorage

Southampton arrival

Southampton departure

St John’s, New Brunswick, departure

St Peter Port, Guernsey, anchorage

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, arrival

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, departure

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, arrival

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, departure

Valletta, Malta, arrival

Valletta, Malta, departure

Vancouver arrival

Zeebrugge, Belgium, arrival

Appendix B – ‘Planning and Control of Turns’ – Captain Hans Hederstrom, FNI and Captain Benny Pettersson, FNI (and Captain Sven Gylden, MNI) (reproduced with their kind permission)

Appendix C – Useful Shiphandling and other Formulas

 

San Pedro departure

South Queensferry, Scotland, anchorage

Southampton arrival

Southampton departure

St John’s, New Brunswick, departure

St Peter Port, Guernsey, anchorage

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, arrival

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, departure

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, arrival

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, departure

Valletta, Malta, arrival

Valletta, Malta, departure

Vancouver arrival

Zeebrugge, Belgium, arrival

Appendix B – ‘Planning and Control of Turns’ – Captain Hans Hederstrom, FNI and Captain Benny Pettersson, FNI (and Captain Sven Gylden, MNI) (reproduced with their kind permission)

Appendix C – Useful Shiphandling and other Formulas

Le Havre departure (2)

Liverpool arrival

Livorno, Italy, arrival

Mahogany Bay, Roatan, arrival

Mahogany Bay departure

Marseille arrival

Marseille departure

Monte Carlo arrival

Montego Bay arrival

Montego Bay departure

Mykonos arrival

Naples arrival

Nawiliwili, Hawaii, arrival

Nawiliwili, Hawaii, departure

Piraeus arrival (inside berth)

Piraeus departure (inside berth)

Piraeus arrival (outer berth)

Piraeus departure (outer berth)

Ponta Delgada, Azores, arrival

Port Everglades arrival (pier 2, PST)

Port Everglades arrival (pier 2, SST)

Port Everglades departure (pier 2, PST)

San Francisco arrival (flood tide)

San Francisco arrival (ebb tide)

San Francisco departure (ebb current)

San Juan arrival

San Juan departure

San Pedro arrival

San Pedro departure

South Queensferry, Scotland, anchorage

Southampton arrival

Southampton departure

St John’s, New Brunswick, departure

St Peter Port, Guernsey, anchorage

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, arrival

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, departure

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, arrival

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, departure

Valletta, Malta, arrival

Valletta, Malta, departure

Vancouver arrival

Zeebrugge, Belgium, arrival

Appendix B – ‘Planning and Control of Turns’ – Captain Hans Hederstrom, FNI and Captain Benny Pettersson, FNI (and Captain Sven Gylden, MNI) (reproduced with their kind permission)

Appendix C – Useful Shiphandling and other Formulas

Port Everglades arrival (pier 2, SST)

Port Everglades departure (pier 2, PST)

San Francisco arrival (flood tide)

San Francisco arrival (ebb tide)

San Francisco departure (ebb current)

San Juan arrival

San Juan departure

San Pedro arrival

San Pedro departure

South Queensferry, Scotland, anchorage

Southampton arrival

Southampton departure

St John’s, New Brunswick, departure

St Peter Port, Guernsey, anchorage

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, arrival

St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, departure

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, arrival

Tortola, British Virgin Islands, departure

Valletta, Malta, arrival

Valletta, Malta, departure

Vancouver arrival

Zeebrugge, Belgium, arrival

Appendix B – ‘Planning and Control of Turns’ – Captain Hans Hederstrom, FNI and Captain Benny Pettersson, FNI (and Captain Sven Gylden, MNI) (reproduced with their kind permission)

Appendix C – Useful Shiphandling and other Formulas

By Captain Hans Hederstrom, FNI Managing Director, CSMART (Center for Simulator Marine Training) Ex Ship Master and Gothenburg Pilot

Captain Nick Nash has written a much needed practical and informative book on how to manoeuvre large modern passenger vessels and ferries that have multi-engines, rudders and thrusters. He has also included a chapter on handling ships with POD propulsion.

To be able to handle a large cruise ship in a safe and efficient way, you have to understand and have knowledge of the “controllable” and “uncontrollable” forces that can affect a ship. Nick has gone into both these forces in detail, making this book a useful reference for all who handle or aspire to gain competence in handling ships.

The book usefully has an appendix of over 50 manoeuvres (including notes and diagrams) taken from Nick’s own experience manoeuvring large (290 m+) passenger vessels in the most popular cruise ports of the world while he has been in command over the last 15 years.

Almere, The Netherlands

 

Captain Nick Nash is a serving Master with Princess Cruises, part of the Carnival Corporation Group, and is also currently the Senior Vice President of The Nautical Institute and President-elect.

He was born in 1960 in Cornwall in the South West of England, where he still lives with his wife Sue. They have a grown-up daughter Victoria.

He was educated at King’s School, Bruton, Somerset and subsequently at The College of Nautical Studies, Warsash.

He joined the Cargo Division of The Cunard Steamship Co as a Cadet in 1977, where he served in general cargo, fruit carriers, oil tankers, container ships, the ‘QE2’ and North Atlantic RoRos. He left Cunard as a Second Officer in 1986 and spent a brief time with the Royal Fleet Auxiliary in Landing Ship Logistics (LSLs) and a fleet tanker before returning to the commercial world with P&O/Princess Cruises in 1989.

Nick was promoted to Staff Captain in 1997 and Captain in 2002. He is a Training Captain and occasionally teaches bridge resource management and shiphandling at the CSMART Arison Maritime Center in Almere, where he is also a Consultant.

He is a Fellow of The Nautical Institute, The Royal Institute of Navigation and The Royal Geographical Society and a Younger Brother of Trinity House.

Out of the marine world, Nick is an advanced driver (Member of the Institute of Advanced Motorists) and holds a current PSV (bus) licence. On a lighter note, he is a keen tennis player and enjoys roaming the coastal footpaths of Cornwall with his dog and navigating a narrow boat on the canals of England and France with his family.

Title: Shiphandling - Passenger Ships Without Tugs
Number of Pages: 361
Product Code: WS1444K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-669-0 (9781856096690), ISBN 10: 1-85609-669-6 (1856096696)
Published Date: June 2018
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 305 mm
Book Width: 217 mm
Book Spine: 27 mm
Weight: 1.80 kg
Author: Nick Nash

Customer Reviews

Comprehensive shiphandling guide by a cruise master who’s seen it all Review by Telegraph Nautilus International
Cruiseships keep getting bigger and bigger and, as some incidents have served to demonstrate, the consequences of accidents have increased exponentially.

This clear and thorough 361-page book therefore makes a significant contribution to the cause of safety, providing insightful guidance based on the practical experience that Capt Nick Nash - a serving master with Princess Cruises and a training captain at the CSMART Centre - has gained in almost 30 years of cruise ship experience, including the last 14 in command.

Aimed in particular at those serving on vessels of 70,000gt and above with twin-screws, twin-rudders and multiple thrusters, the book draws from his manoeuvring notes and is liberally illustrated with relevant photographs, diagrams, charts and actual approach and departure plans for some of the most popular cruise ports around the world.

Capt Nash gives four 'top tips’ for prospective shiphandlers in his foreword -on positioning, speed control, patience and keeping one hand in your pocket (so as to use only one hand on one control lever at a time).

However, his 361-page book leaves no stone unturned in its comprehensive guidance. Subjects covered include: the pivot point; propellers, rudders and thrusters; podded propulsion systems; squat, interaction and bank effects; rate of turn; the impact of winds and currents; controlled and crash stops and emergency anchoring; and issues such as berthing and lifting-off techniques, and drift angles.

Along the way, Capt Nash throws in some fascinating case studies, telling the reader how not to do it as well as how best to do it, as well as devoting a whole chapter to detailed advice on making the best use of a radius track control system.

Another very important section covers the rate of turn, stressing the importance of good monitoring and the way in which local environmental conditions can have a dramatic effect upon plans. Capt Nash also gives some useful advice on how to avoid the risk of heeling during the tight turns that cruiseships sometimes have to make.

Produced to admirably high standards, the book Is clear and direct and excellently presented. Whilst it is primarily intended to help new and aspiring cruiseship captains, it contains much of relevance to all ship handlers and deserves to become a standard reference work for many years to come.
(Posted on 04/07/2019)

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