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Published Date

December 2011

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Ship Automation for Marine Engineers and ETOs (eBook)

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This is a reference manual containing instructional and technical guidance for marine engineers and ETOs. For newcomers to the industry, it will promote development of a practical working knowledge and understanding of ship automation, including troubleshooting techniques and reading of electrical diagrams.

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Written by an electrical superintendent, this book presents an overview of the electrical components and circuitry incorporated in shipboard automated systems. Each chapter is full of practical explanations, supported by detailed illustrations and circuit diagrams.


The author fully appreciates the needs of ships’ technical staff and provides in depth guidance on the array of electrical equipment, systems and standards used in the repair, maintenance and successful operation of modern complex ships.


How much do you know about Ship Automation? Try our free quiz here:

1          How to Read Electrical Diagrams

1.1       Introduction

1.2       The Method of Representing Circuit Arrangements

1.3       Markings and Designations

1.4       Electrical Equipment Representation

1.5       How to Locate an Item in the Schematic Diagram

1.6       Diagram Sections and Segments References

1.7       Block Diagrams

1.8       Cable Diagrams and Cable Conductor Reference Tables

1.9       Wire and Conductor Numbering

1.10     Line Break References

1.11     Method of Wiring

1.12     Technical Data and Type Designations


2          Control Elements

2.1       Introduction

2.2       Electrical Diagram Symbols

2.3       Abbreviations


3          Miniature Relays, Solid State Relays, Control Relays and Contactors

3.1       Terminal Markings and Contact Designation

3.2       Miniature Relays

3.3       Solid State Relays

3.4       Control Relays

3.5       Contactors


4          Overload Relays

4.1       Introduction

4.2       Bimetal Overload Relays

4.3       Trip Class

4.4       Current Transformers’ Operated Overload Relay (Electronic Overload Relays)

4.5       Breakdowns Noted for Electronic Overload Relays


5          Motor Starter Protectors, Motor Protective Miniature Circuit-Breakers

5.1       Introduction

5.2       MSP Accessories


6          Rotary Switches, Selector Switches and Changeover Switches

6.1       Introduction

6.2       Selector Switches

6.3       Diagram Symbols

6.4       Rotary Switch


7          Timer Relays and Multifunctional Timer Relays

7.1       Introduction

7.2       Timer Relay Functions and Settings

7.3       Multifunction Timer


8          Protection and Monitoring Relays

8.1       Introduction

8.2       Current Monitoring Relay (over/under current monitoring relay)

8.3       Phase Imbalance Monitoring/3-phase Voltage Monitoring Relay

8.4       Thermistor Protection Units (PTC Relays) for Use with PTC Probes

8.5       3-Pole Multifunction Protection Relay


9          Three-Phase Induction Motors

9.1       Induction Motors

9.2       Induction Motor Terminal Features

9.3       Checking Stator Winding

9.4       Phase Current Tolerance

9.5       Verifying E-motor Windings


10        Motors Starters

10.1     Introduction

10.2     Direct-on-Line Starting (DOL)

10.3     Star-Delta Starters


11        Air Circuit-Breakers

11.1     Introduction

11.2     Miniature Air Circuit-breakers

11.3     Moulded Case Air Circuit-breakers

11.4     Automatic Air Circuit-breakers


12        LV Power Plant, Main Switchboards, Emergency Switchboards and Power Distribution

12.1     Ship’s Power Plant

12.2     Power Plant Features

12.3     Power Management Features

12.4     Electrical Enclosures IP Class

12.5     Marine Cables/3M Heat Shrink Cables Repair Technology


13        High Voltage Systems

13.1     Introduction

13.2     Vacuum Circuit-Breakers

13.3     SF6 Circuit-Breakers

13.4     Working on HV Systems


14        Step-down Transformers

14.1     Introduction

14.2     Low Voltage Power Network

14.3     Transformer Parallel Operation


15        Generator Neutral Systems

15.1     Power System Networks

15.2     Ship Power Systems

15.3     LV Earthed Neutral System 220 V Network Features


16        Insulation Resistance Monitoring on an AC Network

16.1     IR Basics

16.2     IR Monitoring on Board


17        Synchronous Brushless Alternators Excitation Systems

17.1     Synchronous Brushless Generator Basics

17.2     Understanding Power Factor


18        Process Monitoring Sensors in Practice

18.1     Introduction

18.2     Resistance Temperature Detectors

18.3     Thermocouples

18.4     Pressure Transducers Pressure Transmitters

18.5     Speed Monitoring Sensors

18.6     Proximity Sensors

18.7     Feedback Potentiometers

18.8     Sensor Wiring and Shielding

18.9     Analog Signal Converters


19        Intrinsic Safety

19.1     Introduction

19.2     Zener Barriers

19.3     Intrinsically Safe Applications

19.4     Approvals and Regulations

19.5     Testing Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas


20        Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)

20.1     Introduction

20.2     PLC Basics

20.3     Source-Sink Inputs

20.4     Outputs

20.5     Input/Output Extension Module

20.6     Ladder Logic

20.7     Troubleshooting PLC-Controlled Circuits

20.8     Troubleshooting


21        Process Calibrators

21.1     Process Calibrators


22        Digital Multimeters

22.1     Introduction

22.2     Measuring AC Voltage

22.3     Measuring Resistance

22.4     Measuring Continuity

22.5     Measuring In-Line Current

22.6     Testing Diodes


23        GL Regulations, Machinery Class Notations



Appendix 1 – How to Read Electrical Diagrams

Appendix 2 – Control Elements (European Diagram Symbols)

Appendix 3 – Timer Functions

Appendix 4 – Rated Currents of Three-phase Motors

Appendix 5 – Extract of GL Rules 2008 – Low-voltage Switchgear Assemblies

Appendix 6 – Extract of GL Rules 2008 – Switchgear and Protection Devices

Appendix 7 – Extract of GL Rules 2008 – Power Supply Installations

Appendix 8 – Thermocouples J & K Reference Table

Appendix 9 – Resistors’ and Capacitors’ Coding and Marking System

Appendix 10 – Conversions and Prefixes

While troubleshooting ships’ automation and working part time in engine crew training, I decided to write a handbook that would guide marine engineers through the task of troubleshooting.


A major concern was to present material from a practical point of view to avoid or minimise discussions on the theory, instead focusing on showing how to approach the problems of troubleshooting automation in an efficient manner, so that those not skilled in this field could quickly gain some level of proficiency.


This book will introduce you to a variety of modern electrical appliances that are utilised for ships’ automation, and while reading it you will progress to read electrical diagrams in the way that skilled electricians do. If you find yourself reading something you already know, read it anyway, you may gain a better foundation for what follows.


Because every paragraph is considered important, do not rush or try to cover a lot of pages in a short period of time. Once you have read each chapter through, you should look at your current ship’s diagrams to find out what is common between the explanations and the reality you run into.


However, you will not become a troubleshooter by just reading this book. Learning by doing will always be the best teacher.


People who will find this book useful include:


  • • Management level marine engineers
  • • operational level marine engineers
  • • electricians with a lack of experience and practical skills
  • • engineering cadets
  • • electrical engineering cadets.


Good luck and fair troubleshooting,

Alexandr Yakimchuk
PrEng, DipEE, Superintendent
Jüngerghans Maritime Services GmbH & Co

Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.

Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.

Title: Ship Automation for Marine Engineers and ETOs (eBook)
Number of Pages: 224
Product Code: WS1360EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-526-6 (9781856095266), ISBN 10: 1-85609-526-6 (1856095266)
Published Date: December 2011
Author: Alexandr Yakimchuk

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