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Published Date

December 2011

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Ship Automation for Marine Engineers and ETOs (eBook)

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This is a long overdue reference guide for all aspiring and qualified engineers within the shipping industry. It is an invaluable instructional and technical resource for any engineer or ETO requiring a practical working knowledge and understanding of modern vessels.

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Written by an electrical superintendent, this book provides a unique overview of the many electrical components and systems incorporated in today’s complex vessels. Each chapter is full of practical explanations, presented in an easy to read format with many detailed illustrations.

The author fully appreciates the needs of ships’ technical staff and provides a practical in depth explanation of the enormous amount of electrical equipment, systems and standards used in the repair, maintenance and successful operation of modern complex vessels.

This manual will be of great value to maritime students, engineers and ETOs at any stage of their career.

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Electrical Safety


1 How to Read Electrical Diagrams

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Method of Representing Circuit Arrangements

1.3 Markings and Designations

1.4 Electrical Equipment Representation

1.5 How to Locate an Item in the Schematic Diagram

1.6 Diagram Sections and Segments References

1.7 Block Diagrams

1.8 Cable Diagrams and Cable Conductor Reference Tables

1.9 Wire and Conductor Numbering

1.10 Line Break References

1.11 Method of Wiring

1.12 Technical Data and Type Designations

2 Control Elements

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Electrical Diagram Symbols

2.3 Abbreviations

3 Miniature Relays, Solid State Relays, Control Relays and Contactors
3.1 Terminal Markings and Contact Designation .
3.2 Miniature Relays

3.2.1 Latching Relay

3.2.2 Reed Relays (Electromechanical Printed Circuit Board Relays)

3.3 Solid State Relays

3.4 Control Relays

3.4.1 Voltage Limiting Elements

3.4.2 Top-Mounted Auxiliary Contact Modules
3.4.3 Ordering Relays .
3.5 Contactors

3.5.1 Side-Mounted Auxiliary Contact Modules (Lateral contacts modules)

3.5.2 Mechanical Interlock, Mechanical-Electrical Interlock

3.5.3 Mechanical Latch

3.5.4 Pneumatic Timer Modules

3.5.5 Contactor Accessory Overview

4 Overload Relay

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Bimetal Overload Relays

4.3 Trip Class

4.4 Current Transformers’ Operated Overload Relay (Electronic Overload Relays)

4.5 Breakdowns Noted for Electronic Overload Relays

5 Motor Starter Protectors, Motor Protective Miniature Circuit-Breakers

5.1 Introduction

5.2 MSP Accessories

5.2.1 Undervoltage Release

6 Rotary Switches, Selector Switches and Changeover Switches

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Selector Switches

6.3 Diagram Symbols

6.4 Rotary Switch

7 Timer Relays and Multifunctional Timer Relays

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Timer Relay Functions and Settings

7.2.1 On-Delay Timer

7.2.2 Range and Time Settings for Multi-ranged Time Relays .
7.2.3 Off-Delay Timers

7.2.4 Interval Timer
7.2.5 Recycle Timer

7.2.6 Star-Delta Timer

7.3 Multifunction Timer

7.3.1 Advanced Timer Features

7.3.2 Programmable Multifunction Timers

8 Protection and Monitoring Relays

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Current Monitoring Relay (over/under current monitoring relay)

8.3 Phase Imbalance Monitoring/3-phase Voltage Monitoring Relay

8.4 Thermistor Protection Units (PTC Relays) for Use with PTC Probes

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Thermistor Probes

8.4.3 PTC Relays

8.4.4 PTC Relay Circuit Diagrams

8.4.5 PTC Voltage Warning

8.5 3-Pole Multifunction Protection Relay

9 Three-Phase Induction Motors

9.1 Induction Motors

9.2 Induction Motor Terminal Features

9.3 Checking Stator Winding

9.4 Phase Current Tolerance

9.5 Verifying e-motor windings

10 Motors Starters

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Direct-on-Line Starting (DOL)

10.2.1 Operation Basics

10.2.2 Troubleshooting DOL Starter Circuits .

10.2.3 Reversing DOL starter

10.2.4 Test Your Knowledge

10.3 Star-Delta Starters

10.3.1 Introduction

10.3.2 Operation

10.3.3 Star-Delta Starter Variations

10.3.4 Delta-Double Star, Star-Double Star-Delta Starters

10.3.5 Star-Delta Starter Examples

11 Air Circuit-Breakers

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Miniature Air Circuit-breakers

11.3 Moulded Case Air Circuit-breakers

11.4 Automatic Air Circuit-breakers

11.4.1 Preconditions for Closing

11.4.2 Overload and Short Circuit Protection Adjustment

11.4.3 Undervoltage Release

11.4.4 Delay Unit for Undervoltage Release

11.4.5 Undervoltage Release Applications

11.4.6 Shunt Opening/Closing Release

11.4.7 Overcurrent Release

11.4.8 Air Circuit-breaker Control Diagrams

12 LV Power Plant, Main Switchboards, Emergency Switchboards and Power Distribution
12.1 Ship’s Power Plant

12.2 Power Plant Features
12.2.1 Main Switchboard

12.2.2 Emergency Switchboard

12.2.3 MSB-ESB Transfer Line

12.3 Power Management Features

12.4 Electrical Enclosures IP Class

12.5 Marine Cables/3M Heat Shrink Cables Repair Technology

13 High Voltage Systems

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Vacuum Circuit-Breakers

13.3 SF6 Circuit-Breakers
13.3.1 Breaking principle

13.4 Working on HV systems

13.4.1 Working on HV Equipment

13.4.2 Key Safety Aspects when Working on HV Equipment

14 Step-down Transformers

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Low Voltage Power Network

14.3 Transformer Parallel Operation

15 Generator Neutral Systems

15.1 Power System Networks
15.2 Ship Power Systems

15.3 LV Earthed Neutral System 220 V Network Features

16 Insulation Resistance Monitoring on an AC Network

16.1 IR Basics

16.2 IR Monitoring Onboard

17 Synchronous Brushless Alternators Excitation Systems

17.1 Synchronous Brushless Generator Basics

17.1.1 Stator Core and Winding

17.1.2 Rotor Core and Winding

17.1.3 Generator Excitation

17.1.4 Parallel Operation Load Sharing

17.1.5 Generators in Operation
17.1.6 Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)
17.1.7 Troubleshooting Tips
17.1.8 Generator Insulation Testing
17.2 Understanding Power Factor

18 Process Monitoring Sensors in Practice

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Resistance Temperature Detectors

18.2.1 Pt 100 Resistance Data Table and Characteristic

18.2.2 Pt 100 Compensation Circuit Resistance

18.2.3 Double Pt 100 Sensors

18.2.4 Pt 100 for Temperature Compensation

18.2.5 Solid State Thermostats (Electronic Temperature Relay)

18.2.6 Resistance to Current Converters

18.2.7 Troubleshooting Pt 100s

18.3 Thermocouples

18.3.1 Thermocouples Type-K, -J Characteristics

18.3.2 Exhaust Gas Temperature Monitoring

18.3.3 Troubleshooting Thermocouples

18.4 Pressure Transducers Pressure Transmitters

18.4.1 Millivolts-Output (mV) Pressure Transducers

18.4.2 Volts-Output Pressure Transducers

18.4.3 4-20 mA Pressure Transducers

18.4.4 The Ratio Between Pressure and Current

18.4.5 Troubleshooting 4-20 mA Pressure Transducers

18.4.6 Pressure Transmitters

18.5 Speed Monitoring Sensors

18.5.1 Electromagnetic Speed Sensors

18.5.2 Ferromagnetic Speed Sensors with Line Amplifier

18.5.3 Speed Pickups’ Diagram Definition and Troubleshooting

18.5.4 Speed Monitoring Relays

18.5.5 Frequency to Current (F/I) Converters

18.6 Proximity Sensors

18.6.1 Capacitive Sensors

18.6.2 Inductive Sensors

18.6.3 Proximity Sensor Output

18.6.4 Fuel Rack Transmitter

18.7 Feedback Potentiometers

18.8 Sensor Wiring and Shielding

18.9 Analog Signal Converters

19 Intrinsic Safety

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Zener Barriers

19.3 Intrinsically Safe Applications

19.4 Approvals and Regulations

19.5 Testing Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas

20 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)

20.1 Introduction

20.2 PLC Basics

20.2.1 PLC Terminology

20.3 Source-Sink Inputs

20.4 Outputs

20.5 Input/Output Extension Module

20.6 Ladder Logic

20.6.1 Basic Instructions

20.6.2 Logic Functions

20.6.3 DOL Starter Ladder Logic

20.7 Troubleshooting PLC-Controlled Circuits

20.7.1 Power Supply

20.7.2 Verifying Input Condition

20.7.3 Verifying Output Condition

20.7.4 CPU Diagnostics

20.7.5 Stepping Forward to PLCs Troubleshooting

20.8 Troubleshooting

21 Process Calibrators

21.1 Process Calibrators

22 Digital Multimeters

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Measuring AC Voltage

22.3 Measuring Resistance

22.4 Measuring Continuity

22.5 Measuring In-Line Current

22.6 Testing Diodes

23 GL Regulations, Machinery Class Notations


Appendix 1 – How to Read Electrical Diagrams

Appendix 2 – Control Elements (European Diagram Symbols)

Appendix 3 – Timer Functions

Appendix 4 – Rated Currents of Three-phase Motors

Appendix 5 – Extract of GL Rules 2008 - Low-voltage Switchgear Assemblies

Appendix 6 – Extract of GL Rules 2008 - Switchgear and Protection Devices

Appendix 7 – Extract of GL Rules 2008 - Power Supply Installations

Appendix 8 – Thermocouples J & K Reference Table

Appendix 9 – Resistors’ and Capacitors’ Coding and Marking System

Appendix 10 – Conversions and Prefixes




Title: Ship Automation for Marine Engineers and ETOs (eBook)
Number of Pages: 224
Product Code: WS1360EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-526-6 (9781856095266), ISBN 10: 1-85609-526-6 (1856095266)
Published Date: December 2011
Author: Alexandr Yakimchuk

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