Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide, 3rd Edition (SMOG) (eBook)

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October 2015

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Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide, 3rd Edition (SMOG) (eBook)

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Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide (SMOG) is an industry guide with technical recommendations and guidance for the operation and maintenance of single point moorings (SPM).


The third edition of SMOG now incorporates, and updates, the following:

  • Guidelines for the Handling, Storage, Inspection and Testing of Hoses in the Field

  • The Single Point Mooring Hose Ancillary Equipment Guide

  • Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide, 2nd edition.

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SMOG is an industry guide with technical recommendations and guidance for the operation and maintenance of single point moorings (SPM). The guide builds on previous recommendations and the new or significantly changed topics that are included in this edition include:


  • Design of SPM systems.

  • Operation of SPM’s including:

    • Operating environmental limits.

    • Guidance to ensure hoses are lifted safely within tanker crane capacity.

    • Guidance and actions regarding ship/shore cargo quantity comparison.

    • Qualification and training of personnel including Mooring Master skills and competence.

  • Water flushing at SPM’s.

  • The use of hoses, including:

    • Storage, handling and hose string assembly.

    • Hose time in service data from terminals.

    • Specific guidance following overpressure.

    • Hose inspection and testing.

    • Information regarding marine breakaway couplings.

  • Support vessels and the use of tugs.

  • Specific SPM Health, Safety, Security and the Environment (HSSE) guidance.







Section one

Description of single point moorings

1.1 Catenary anchor leg mooring buoys

1.1.1 Turntable buoy

1.1.2 Turret buoy

1.2 Single anchor leg mooring buoy

Section two

Design of single point moorings

2.1 General design considerations

2.1.1 Conceptual risk assessment of proposed terminal

2.1.2 Establishing design considerations

2.1.3 Products to be handled

2.1.4 Tankers and system capacities

2.1.5 Operation and maintenance philosophies

2.1.6 Environmental design conditions

2.1.7 Hydrographic, geotechnical and geophysical surveys

2.2 Site selection and layout

2.2.1 General

2.2.2 Provision of an adequate manoeuvring area

2.2.3 Provision of adequate water depth

2.3 Mooring load transfer system and load analysis

2.3.1 Mooring load transfer system

2.3.2 Environmental factors and abnormal loads

2.4 Petroleum cargo transfer system

2.4.1 Process flow scheme

2.4.2 Cargo transfer system and surge analysis

2.5 Single point mooring buoy design

2.5.1 Design and construction codes and standards

2.5.2 Hazardous area classification for flammable gases and vapours

2.5.3 Power, control and monitoring philosophies

2.5.4 Corrosion protection

2.6 Hose system design

2.6.1 Catenary anchor leg mooring floating hose string

2.6.2 Electrically discontinuous hoses

2.7 Pipeline end manifold

Section three

Operation of single point moorings

3.1 Management of safety, occupational health and security

3.1.1 Hazard and operability analysis

3.2 Pre-arrival procedures

3.2.1 Nomination and tanker acceptance criteria

3.2.2 Pre-arrival exchange of information

3.2.3 Pre-arrival inspection of single point moorings

3.2.4 Pre-berthing exchange of information

3.3 Environmental operating limits

3.4 Personnel and equipment transfer between support vessel and tanker

3.5 Tanker berthing and mooring

3.5.1 Role of Mooring Master (1) – pilotage

3.5.2 Role of Mooring Master (2) – mooring on forecastle

3.6 Connecting rail hoses

3.6.1 Lifting rail hoses

3.6.2 Procedure for connecting rail hoses

3.7 Operations of tankers in berths

3.7.1 Responsibilities

3.7.2 Management of moorings and cargo hoses

3.7.3 Operational communications

3.8 Cargo transfer

3.8.1 Emergency shutdown

3.8.2 Surge pressures

3.9 Disconnecting hoses

3.10 Departure from the single point mooring

3.10.1 Role of Mooring Master (1) – pilotage

3.10.2 Role of Mooring Master (2) – unmooring on forecastle

3.11 Qualifications and training

3.11.1 Competence and training of personnel

3.11.2 Competence of Mooring Masters

Section four

Inspection and maintenance of single point moorings

4.1 Inspection and maintenance principles

4.1.1 Guidance on designing an inspection and maintenance plan

4.2 General precautions

4.3 Inspection and maintenance schedules

4.3.1 Pre-berthing inspection

4.3.2 Buoy and structure inspection

4.3.3 Lubrication

4.3.4 Mooring legs and anchor point inspection

4.3.5 Cargo transfer system inspection

4.3.6 Pipeline end manifold inspection

4.3.7 Electrical, instrument and safety inspection

4.3.8 Post tanker departure inspection

4.4 Mooring system

4.4.1 Mooring hawser

4.4.2 Chafe chain

4.4.3 Pick-up rope

4.4.4 Support buoy

4.4.5 Single point mooring bridle/joint

4.5 Lifting equipment

4.6 Spares policy

4.6.1 Consumables

4.7 Line flushing operations

4.7.1 Flushing

4.7.2 Ensuring an effective flush

4.7.3 Flushing from support vessels

Section five

Handling, storage, testing and inspection of hoses at single point moorings

5.1 Hose lifting and storage

5.1.1 Hose lifting

5.1.2 Hose storage

5.2 Hose string assembly and handling

5.2.1 Hose flange bolting

5.2.2 Handling hose strings

5.3 Hose service life

5.3.1 Demonstrating the integrity of hose systems

5.3.2 Determining hose service life

5.4 Guidance following overpressure and accidents

5.4.1 Overpressure

5.4.2 Vacuum

5.4.3 Loads from breakout or mishandling

5.5 Hose inspection and testing requirements

5.6 Inspection and testing of hose strings in-situ

5.6.1 Inspection of floating hoses

5.6.2 Inspection of submarine hoses

5.6.3 Hydrostatic pressure testing of hose strings in-situ

5.7 Testing hoses on shore

5.7.1 Thorough visual inspection

5.7.2 Hydrostatic pressure test

5.7.3 Vacuum test

5.7.4 Electrical test

5.7.5 Minimum bend radius test (optional)

5.7.6 Weight test (optional)

5.8 Destructive testing of hoses after retirement

5.8.1 Burst tests

5.8.2 Material tests

5.8.3 Hose dissection

5.9 Hose ancillary equipment

5.9.1 Marine breakaway couplings

5.9.2 Rail hose ancillary equipment

5.9.3 Miscellaneous hose ancillary equipment


Appendix A: The Elements of MTMSA Applied to SPM Management

Appendix B: Calculating the hose lift weigh

Appendix C: Forecastle watchman guide

Appendix D: Support facilities for single point mooring

D1 Maintenance support vessels

D1.1 Mooring launches

D1.2 Multipurpose support and maintenance vessels

D2 Use of tugs in operational support

D2.1 Use of tugs for mooring and unmooring

D3 Diving services

D3.1 Terminal organisation and responsibilities for diving

OCIMF was formed in April 1970 in response to the growing public concern about marine pollution, particularly by oil, after the Torrey Canyon incident in 1967. In the early 1970s, a variety of anti-pollution initiatives were starting to emerge nationally, regionally and internationally, but with little coordination. Through OCIMF, the oil industry was able to play a stronger, coordinating role in response to these initiatives, making its professional expertise widely available through cooperation with governments and intergovernmental bodies.

OCIMF was granted consultative status at the IMO in 1971 and continues to present oil industry views at IMO meetings. Since then, its role has broadened to take account the changing maritime activities of its membership. Its remit now covers tankers, barges, offshore support vessels and terminals and its advice extends to issues like shipping in ice and large-scale piracy, which rarely troubled the oil industry when OCIMF was first created in the 1970s.

The current membership of OCIMF comprises 112 companies worldwide.

Today, OCIMF is widely recognised as the voice of the oil industry providing expertise in the safe and environmentally responsible transport and handling of hydrocarbons in ships and terminals and setting standards for continuous improvement. Membership is extensive and includes every oil major in the world along with the majority of National Oil Companies.

OCIMF has much to be proud of. Not only has it contributed to a substantial quantity of regulation at the IMO aimed at improving the safety of tankers and protecting the environment, but it has introduced important new guidance on pressing current issues such as piracy and Arctic shipping. With the process of introducing new Internationally-accepted regulation necessarily slow as it crosses many individual countries and jurisdictions, OCIMF is in the unique position of being able to leverage the expertise of its membership to press ahead with much needed guidance on important industry issues. This provides the means to improve practices in the membership and in the wider industry, and serves as a valuable reference for developing regulation.

Title: Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide, 3rd Edition (SMOG) (eBook)
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: Third
Number of Pages: 104
Product Code: WS1441EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-631-7 (9781856096317), ISBN 10: 1-85609-631-9 (1856096319)
Published Date: October 2015
Author: Oil Companies International Marine Forum

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