Tanker Safety Training (Liquefied Gas) (eBook)

Published Date

January 2007

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Tanker Safety Training (Liquefied Gas) (eBook)

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This publication provides senior ship’s officers, tanker terminal personnel and shore staff with an understanding of the principles of safe loading, transportation and discharging of liquefied gas. With over 200 images, line drawings and photographs, it covers both theoretical and practical aspects of ship operations, with the objective of ensuring the safety and health of personnel.

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This book discusses the bulk transport at sea of liquefied petroleum gases, chemical gases and liquefied natural gas, as well as aspects of port and barge handling in inland waters.


While covering the IMO model course requirements, the text also provides information on the important areas of cargo calculation and operational procedure.


Where appropriate, sections are split to show the differences in operational practice between the LNG and LPG trades.


Chapter 1 The Gases and Their Properties
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Chemical Properties of the Gases
1.3 Physical Properties of the Gases
1.4 States of Matter
1.5 Gases – Properties and Rules
1.6 First Stage – Gas to Liquid
1.7 What are the Gases Carried on Liquefied Gas Carriers Used For?

Chapter 2 Potential Hazards
2.1 Health Hazards
2.2 Flammability and Explosion
2.3 O2 Concentration and Inerting
2.4 Sources of Ignition

Chapter 3 Ship Characteristics and Cargo Containment
3.1 Principles of Gas Carrier Design and Construction
3.2 Cargo Containment Systems
3.3 Materials of Construction
3.4 Hold Spaces
3.5 Liquefied Gas Carriers – Ship Types
3.6 General Gas Carrier Layout
3.7 Categorisation of Gas Ship Types
3.8 Surveys and Certification

Chapter 4 Regulations and Codes of Practice Governing Gas Carriers
4.1 The IMO Codes for Liquefied Gas Tankers
4.2 International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS ‘74)
4.3 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL ‘73)
4.4 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
4.5 Inter-Industry Organisations
4.6 The Classification Societies

Chapter 5 Cargo Handling Systems
5.1 Cargo Piping, Pumping and Valves
5.2 Pressure Relief Valves
5.3 Cargo Pumps
5.4 LPG Reliquefaction Plant
5.5 LNG Boil-Off and Vapour Handling Systems
5.6 Inert Gas Systems
5.7 Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas
5.8 Instrumentation

Chapter 6 LPG Operations
6.1 Drying
6.2 Inerting
6.3 Gassing Up
6.4 Cool-down
6.5 Loading
6.6 Loaded Passage
6.7 Discharge
6.8 Ballast Passage
6.9 Changing Grades/Gas Freeing
6.10 Aeration of Cargo Tanks
6.11 Important Points When Changing LPG Cargoes
6.12 Tank Cleaning Table Liquefied Gas

Chapter 7 LNG Operations
7.1 Typical Trading Cycle for a Modern LNG Carrier
7.2 Nitrogen Purging of the Insulation Space
7.3 Drying of Cargo Tanks
7.4 Inerting Cargo Tanks
7.5 Gassing up Cargo Tanks
7.6 Cooling Down of the Cargo Tanks
7.7 Loading
7.8 Loaded Passage
7.9 LNG Unloading (Discharge)
7.10 Ballast Voyage – In Service – Return to Load Port
7.11 Stripping (at discharge port prior to gas freeing)
7.12 Warming up the Cargo Tanks
7.13 Inerting of the Cargo Tanks
7.14 Aeration of the Cargo Tanks

Chapter 8 Cargo Calculations
8.1 Principle
8.2 Weight or Mass
8.3 Density
8.4 Temperature
8.5 Pressure
8.6 ASTM Tables
8.7 Total Weight of Liquid Cargo
8.8 Total Weight of Vapour Cargo
8.9 Discharging Calculations
8.10 Cargo Calculation Form

Chapter 9 Terminal Operations
9.1 The Ship/Shore Interface
9.2 Communications
9.3 Pre-Arrival
9.4 General Precautions While the Ship is at Berth
9.5 Cargo Handling
9.6 Cargo Vapour Handling
9.7 Additional Procedures
9.8 Ship/Shore Safety Checklist

Chapter 10 Safe Practices and Safety Equipment
10.1 Atmosphere Evaluation
10.2 Entry into Enclosed Spaces
10.3 Personnel Protection

Chapter 11 Emergency Procedures
11.1 The Principal Hazards
11.2 Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing
11.3 Emergency Procedures
11.4 Specific Emergency Plans (Ship alongside Jetty)
11.5 Emergency Procedures on Gas Carriers

Chapter 12 Case Studies

These training notes are designed to give senior ship’s officers, tanker terminal personnel and selected management staff an understanding of the principles involved in the safe loading, transportation and discharging of liquefied gases. The bulk transport at sea of liquefied petroleum gases, chemical gases and liquefied natural gas is considered and augmented with some aspects of port and barge handling in inland waters. The notes include both theoretical and practical aspects of ship operations, with the objective of ensuring the safety and health of personnel.


Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.

Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.

Title: Tanker Safety Training (Liquefied Gas) (eBook)
Number of Pages: 312
Product Code: WS1014EA
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-341-5 (9781856093415), ISBN 10: 1-85609-341-7 (1856093417)
Published Date: January 2007
Author: Witherby Publishing Group

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