The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook (eBook)

Published Date

July 2019


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The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook (eBook)

$273.76
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This 360-page publication provides a detailed explanation of every aspect of seamanship and navigation in ice. It will allow seafarers to acquire the necessary knowledge and understanding of this challenging environment which, when combined with practical experience, will enable safe navigation in ice.

 

Topics covered include types of ice and where they may be encountered, preparing the ship and crew for ice conditions, ship handling and navigation in ice, the Polar Code and other regulations, working with icebreakers, and pollution response.

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This edition of ‘The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook’ supersedes ‘The Ice Navigation Manual’ published in 2010 by Witherby Publishing and the ‘BIMCO Ice Handbook’ published in 2005 by The Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO).

 

The book identifies the world’s major ice regions, with maps illustrating ice routes and seasonal variations of ice thickness and extent. It describes the appearance and characteristics of the various types of ice and explains how shiphandling procedures may differ according to type.

 

A separate chapter sets out the applicable international agreements and regulations (with particular emphasis on the Polar Code), as well as regional and local legislation.

 

An explanation is provided of ice class ships and how they are categorised by Class and under the Polar Code. The book looks at different design, construction and operating considerations.

 

The book looks in detail at how to prepare a ship for ice conditions. It lists the key items to be considered and provides useful checklists for both the deck and engine departments.

 

A crucial aspect of navigation in ice is obtaining adequate ice information to support decision making throughout the voyage. A separate chapter looks at sources and methods of acquiring ice and weather information, according to the ship, its location and the technology available.

 

The book also looks at crew training and qualification, as required under the STCW Convention and Code. It discusses correct clothing, dangers of exposure and hazards to health.

 

The chapter on navigation in ice provides invaluable practical guidance on preparing and executing the passage plan. It discusses watchkeeping and bridge procedures, position fixing, use of radar and ice accretion. This is followed by a chapter on shiphandling in ice, with emphasis on approaching and entering the ice, manoeuvring, berthing and anchoring.

 

Advice is also provided on working with icebreakers and pollution response.

 

The book is illustrated throughout with colour photographs and diagrams.

 

Introduction ix

Acknowledgements xi

CHAPTER 1 – ICE TYPE 1

1 Ice Types 3

1.1 Fresh Water Ice 5

1.2 Sea Ice 5

1.3 Glacial Ice 12

1.4 Fast Ice 16

1.5 Pack Ice 16

1.6 Ice Movement (Drift) 19

1.7 Ice Deterioration and Change 20

CHAPTER 2 – THE ICE REGIONS 23

2 The Ice Regions 25

2.1 Regional Polar Ice Differences 25

2.2 Northern Ice 27

2.3 Southern Ice 32

2.4 Individual Ice Regions 34

CHAPTER 3 – REGULATIONS AND THE POLAR CODE 85

3 Regulations 87

3.1 International Agreements and Regulations 87

3.2 The Polar Code 90

3.3 Regional and Local Regulations 100

3.4 Sovereignty 104

CHAPTER 4 – ICE CLASS SHIPS 113

4 Ice Class Ships 115

4.1 Classification Standards 115

4.2 Ice Design Considerations 123

4.3 Class Notations for ‘Winterisation’ and De-Icing 128

4.4 Double-Acting Ships 128

4.5 Icebreaking Propulsion Plant 132

4.6 Mooring Equipment 133

4.7 Insurance 134

4.8 Icebreaker Construction 136

4.9 Oblique Icebreaker Design 140

CHAPTER 5 – PREPARING A SHIP FOR ICE 141

5 Preparing a Ship for Ice 143

5.1 Ballast and Trim 146

5.2 Fresh Water Tanks and Fire Lines 148

5.3 Main Engine 148

5.4 Sea Inlets 149

5.5 Garbage and Waste 151

5.6 Searchlights 151

5.7 Deck Protection 151

5.8 Ice Accretion and Stability 153

5.9 De-Icing 156

5.10 Safety 158

5.11 Checklist for the Deck Department 158

5.12 Checklist for the Engine Department 161

CHAPTER 6 – FORECASTING AND REPORTING ICE CONDITIONS 163

6 Forecasting and Reporting Ice Conditions 165

6.1 International and SOLAS Requirements for Ice Reporting 165

6.2 Ice Forecasts and Ice Charts 166

6.3 The Egg Code 169

6.4 Colour Coding Ice Charts 173

6.5 Ice Symbols and Indications Associated with International Ice Charts 175

6.6 Iceberg Coding and Message Preparation 178

6.7 Ice Reporting and Forecast Systems in the Baltic Sea 179

6.8 Ice Reporting and Forecast Systems in the Arctic Region 183

6.9 Ice Reporting and Forecast Systems in the Antarctic Region 184

6.10 Use of Satellite Imagery for Onboard Navigation 186

6.11 Private Sources of Information/Satellite Data 189

CHAPTER 7 – PREPARING THE CREW FOR ICE 191

7 Preparing the Crew for Ice 193

7.1 Training for Ice Conditions 193

7.2 Clothing 199

7.3 Accidents and Emergencies 203

7.4 General Crew Comfort 207

7.5 Wind Chill 208

7.6 Medical 211

CHAPTER 8 – NAVIGATION IN ICE 217

8 Navigation in Ice 219

8.1 Passage Planning 219

8.2 Watchkeeping Practices 223

8.3 Evidence of Ice 225

8.4 Navigation in Pack Ice 228

8.5 Visibility and Heating 230

8.6 Position Fixing in Ice Conditions 231

8.7 Radar Use in Ice Conditions 234

8.8 Compasses 236

CHAPTER 9 – SHIPHANDLING 239

9 Shiphandling 241

9.1 Entering the Ice 241

9.2 Approaching the Ice Edge 242

9.3 Underway in Ice 244

9.4 Pinch Points 248

9.5 Beset in Ice 249

9.6 Anchoring in Ice 250

9.7 Inland Navigation: Canal and Lock Systems 251

9.8 Damage in Ice 253

9.9 Berthing in Ports with Ice 257

CHAPTER 10 – SHIP OPERATIONS IN ICE 263

10 Ship Operations in Ice 265

10.1 Cargo Operations (Liquid/Gas) 267

10.2 Cargo Operations (Bulk/General) 269

10.3 Passenger Ships 272

CHAPTER 11 – WORKING WITH ICEBREAKERS 275

11 Working with Icebreakers 277

11.1 Icebreaker Assistance for Beset Ships 279

11.2 Ice Convoys 281

11.3 Requirements for Escorted Ships 283

11.4 Towing in Ice 287

11.5 Nuclear-powered Icebreakers 292

11.6 The World Icebreaker and Icebreaking Supply Fleet 292

CHAPTER 12 – POLLUTION IN ICE COVERED WATERS 293

12 Pollution in Ice Covered Waters 295

12.1 Introduction and Overview 295

12.2 Incidents and Accidents in Ice Covered Waters 298

12.3 Spill Scenarios 301

12.4 Oil Fate and Behaviour 304

12.5 Detection and Spill Surveillance 313

12.6 Response Strategies - Recovery and Removal 316

12.7 International Agreements, Liabilities and Regulations 331

12.8 Regional Spill Response Resources 335

12.9 Response Planning Resources 342

Glossary

Index

Witherbys would like to highlight the technical expertise and assistance provided by:

 

Ilkka Alhoke

Tommy Berg

Pierre Claveau

Paul Cordeiro

David Dickens

Stanislas Devorsine

David House

Edward Kemp

Indrek Kivi

Keld Quistgaard

Michael Lloyd

Patrick Toomey

and the following sources of information:

Aker Arctic Technology

Minister of Public Works and Government Services of Canada

Danish Meteorological Institute

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)

Title: The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook (eBook)
Number of Pages: 440
Product Code: WS1665EA
Published Date: July 2019

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